Effect of Enzyme Type on the Properties of Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process
Protein hydrolysate is small fragments of peptides that contain many amino acids, and they can be prepared from fish meat and their by-products. The enzymatic hydrolysis process is the most effective method to recover the nutrients and bioactive peptides with preserving their nutritional value. In this study, papain and alcalase 2.4L enzymes have been employed to evaluate the preparation efficiency of protein hydrolysate from Chinese sturgeon by enzymatic hydrolysis process and its antioxidant properties. Papain was the more effective enzyme to obtain the highest degree of hydrolysis and yield, which were 20.62% and 16.77%, respectively. Increased degree of hydrolysis using papain led to an increase in the percentage of molecular weights (≤1 kDa), and total amino acids which were 98.26% and 97.82 g/100g protein, respectively. The solubility of the protein was significantly affected by enzyme type and pH, where the highest solubility was achieved by using the papain enzyme and pH 2, which was 97.39%. While alcalase 2.4L hydrolysate has achieved the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH and ABTS assays, which reached 81.42% and 87.75% at a hydrolysate concentration of 5 mg/mL, respectively. The findings indicate that papain and alcalase 2.4L enzymes can play a promising role in the production of fish protein hydrolysate with improved functional properties for potential food and pharmaceutical applications.
Chinese Sturgeon, Papain, Alcalase 2.4L, Protein Hydrolysate, Antioxidant Properties
Ryan, J. T., et al., Bioactive peptides from muscle sources: Meat and Fish. Nutrients, 2011; 9: 765-791.
Borawska, J., et al., Antioxidant properties of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates. Food Chemistry, 2016; 194: 770-779.
Chalamaiah, M., et al., Protein hydrolysates from meriga (Cirrhinus mrigala) egg and evaluation of their functional properties. Food Chemistry, 2010; 3: 652-657.
Chalamaiah, M., et al., Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2015; 9: 5817-5825.
Chalamaiah, M., R. Hemalatha, and T. Jyothirmayi, Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review. Food Chemistry, 2012; 4: 3020-3038.
Harnedy, P. A. and R. J. FitzGerald, Bioactive peptides from marine processing waste and shellfish: A review. Journal of Functional Foods, 2012; 1: 6-24.
Ishak, N. and N. Sarbon, A review of protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides deriving from wastes generated by fish processing. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2018; 1: 2-16.
Li-Chan, E. C., Bioactive peptides and protein hydrolysates: research trends and challenges for application as nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients. Current Opinion in Food Science, 2015; 1: 28-37.
Noman, A., et al., Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the degree of hydrolysis and functional properties of protein hydrolysate obtained from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) by using papain enzyme. Process Biochemistry, 2018; 67: 19-28.
Bronzi, P., et al., Sturgeon meat and caviar production: Global update 2017. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2019; 1: 257-266.
Noman, A., et al., Influence of Degree of Hydrolysis on Chemical Composition, Functional Properties, and Antioxidant Activities of Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) Hydrolysates Obtained by Using Alcalase 2.4 L. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 2019; 6: 583–597.
Ovissipour, M., et al., The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis time and temperature on the properties of protein hydrolysates from Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) viscera. Food Chemistry, 2009; 1: 238-242.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis. In Association of Official Analytical Chemists (16th ed). Washington, DC (2005).
Foh, M. B. K., et al., Functionality and antioxidant properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as influenced by the degree of hydrolysis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2010; 4: 1851-1869.
Jemil, I., et al., Functional, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from fish meat fermented by Bacillus subtilis A26. Process Biochemistry, 2014; 6: 963-972.
Ovissipour, M., et al., Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from whole anchovy sprat (Clupeonella engrauliformis) prepared using endogenous enzymes and commercial proteases. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2013; 7: 1718-1726.
Kristinsson, H. G. and B. A. Rasco, Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical, and functional properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2000; 1: 43-81.
García-Moreno, P. J., et al., Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates obtained from discarded Mediterranean fish species. Food Research International, 2014; 65: 469-476.
Ktari, N., et al., Effect of degree of hydrolysis and protease type on the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) by-products. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 2013; 5: 436-448.
Villamil, O., H. Váquiro, and J. F. Solanilla, Fish viscera protein hydrolysates: Production, potential applications and functional and bioactive properties. Food Chemistry, 2017; 224: 160-171.
Tan, X., et al., Analysis of volatile compounds and nutritional properties of enzymatic hydrolysate of protein from cod bone. Food Chemistry 2018; 264: 350-357.
Dong, S., et al., Antioxidant and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Food Chemistry, 2008; 4: 1485-1493.
Hamzeh, A., et al., Amino acid composition of Roe from wild and farmed Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2015; 2: 357-364.
Slizyte, R., et al., Bioactivities of fish protein hydrolysates from defatted salmon backbones. Biotechnology Reports, 2016; 11: 99-109.
Chalamaiah, M., et al., Chemical composition, molecular mass distribution and antioxidant capacity of rohu (Labeo rohita) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates prepared by gastrointestinal proteases. Food Research International, 2013; 1: 221-229.
Hou, H., et al., Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of Alaska pollock frame for preparing protein hydrolysates with low-bitterness. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2011; 2: 421-428.
Thiansilakul, Y., S. Benjakul, and F. Shahidi, Compositions, functional properties and antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from round scad (Decapterus maruadsi). Food Chemistry, 2007; 4: 1385-1394.
dos Santos, S. D. A., et al., Evaluation of functional properties in protein hydrolysates from bluewing searobin (Prionotus punctatus) obtained with different microbial enzymes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2011; 8: 1399-1406.
Ktari, N., et al., Functionalities and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysates from muscle of zebra blenny (Salaria basilisca) obtained with different crude protease extracts. Food Research International, 2012; 2: 747-756.
Bougatef, A., et al., Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of smooth hound (Mustelus mustelus) muscle protein hydrolysates obtained by gastrointestinal proteases. Food Chemistry, 2009; 4: 1198-1205.
Bougatef, A., et al., Purification and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of sardinelle (Sardinellaaurita) by-products proteins. Food Chemistry, 2010; 3: 559-565.
Sarmadi, B. H. and A. Ismail, Antioxidative peptides from food proteins: a review. Peptides, 2010; 10: 1949-1956.