Chemical Composition, Sensory Evaluation, Rheological Properties and Starter Activity of Admixtures of Buffalo’s, Cow’s and Soymilk
The objectives of this work were (1) to study the impact of addition various levels of soymilk to buffalo’s or cow’s milk on the chemical composition, sensory evaluation and rheological properties, (2) to determine the activity of classic yoghurt and ABT cultures in the previous mentioned milk. Incorporation of soymilk with buffalo’s or cow’s milk decreased total solids, fat, total protein and ash contents and increased redox potential (Eh) values of the resulted mixtures. Mixtures of soymilk with buffalo’s or cow’s milk gained lower sensory evaluation scores than those of buffalo’s and cow’s milk but higher than that of soymilk. Samples of 25% soymilk+75% buffalo’s milk or 25% soymilk+75% cow’s milk obtained the highest sensory evaluation scores for mixtures of soy, buffalo’s and cow’s milk. Blinding of soymilk with buffalo’s and cow’s milk prolonged coagulation time with classic or ABT culture. Addition of 25, 50 and 75% soymilk decreased curd tension of buffalo’s milk while increased it for cow’s milk. Cow’s milk had the highest values of susceptibility to syneresis (STS) whereas buffalo’s milk had the lowest. Mixing of soymilk with buffalo milk increased STS values which decreased by blinding soymilk with cow’s milk. Water holding capacity (WHC) values followed the opposite trend for STS. During fermentation, the increasing of acidity and Eh was lower in soymilk than those of buffalo’s and cow’s milk. Mixing of soymilk with buffalo’s or cow’s milk lowered increasing of acidity and Eh. Both acidity ratios and the development of acidity rates within fermentation were higher in milk inoculated with classic starter than that of milk inoculated with ABT culture.
Akintunde TTY, Akintunde BO. Development of Models for Predicting the Yield and Quality of Soymilk. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa. 2002; 7: 55-58.
Amaretti A, di Nunzio M, Pompei A, Raimondi S, Rossi M, Bordoni A. Antioxidant properties of potentially probiotic bacteria: in vitro and in vivo activities. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2013; 97: 809-817.
Ammar El-Tahra MA, Ismail MM, Khalil AE, Eid MZ. Impact of fortification with honey on some properties of bio-yoghurt. J. Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sci. 2015; 4 (5).
Ammar El-Tahra MA, Ismail MM, Khalil AE, Eid MZ. Effect of supplementation with olive oil on some properties of bio-yoghurt. The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2014; 1(4): 66-77.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 2000; 17th ed, Washington, DC, USA.
Chandrasekhara MR, Bhagawan RK, Swaminathan M, Subrahmanyan V. The use of mammalian milk and processed milk foods in the feeding of infants. Indian J. Child. Health, 1957; D, 70L.
Chien JT, Snyder HE. Detection and control of soymilk astringency," J. Food Sci.1983; 48: 438-440.
Damin MR, Minowa E, Alcantara MR, Oliveira MN. Effect of cold storage on culture viability and some rheological properties of fermented milk prepared with yoghurt and probiotic bacteria. J. Texture Studies. 2008; 39: 40–55.
Dubef UK, Mlstry VV. Gcharacteristics of bifidobacteria in infant formulas. J Dairy Sci. 1996; 79:1146-1155.
Hassan AN, Ipsen R, Janzen T, Qvist KB. Microstructure and rheology of yoghurt made with cultures differing only in their ability to produce Exopolysaccharides. J. of Dairy Sci. 2003; 86:1632- 1638.
Hussein GAM. Preparation of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt- like fermented products for bottle-fed infants. Egyptian J. Dairy Sci. 2010; 38:171-182.
Ismail MM. Improvement of nutritional and healthy values of yoghurt by fortification with rutub date. J. Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sci. 2015; 4 (5) 398-406.
Jiang S, Cai W, Xu B. Food quality improvement of soymilk made from short-time germinated soybeans. Foods. 2013; 2, 198-212.
Kpodo FMK, Afoakwa EO, Amoa BB, Budu AS, Saalia FK. Effect of Ingredient Variation on Microbial Acidification, Susceptibility to Syneresis, Water Holding Capacity and Viscosity of Soy-Peanut- Cow Milk Yoghurt. Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Engineering. 2014.
Kurzer MS. Hormonal effects of soy isoflavones: studies in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Journal of Nutrition. 2000; 130, 660S – 661S.
Kwok KC, Niranjan K. Review: effect of thermal processing on soymilk. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 1995; 30: 263-295.
Lakshmanan R, De Lamballerie M, Jung S. Effect of Soybean‐to‐Water Ratio and pH on Pressurized Soymilk Properties. Journal of Food Science. 2006; 71: E384-E391.
Liu K. Soybeans: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization. Chapter 4. I: Soymilk & II: Tofu. New York: Chapman and Hall. p. 1997; 138-197.
Mattila-Sandholm T, Myllarinen P, Crittenden R, Mogensen G, Fonden R, Saarela M. Technological challenges for future probiotic foods. Int. Dairy J. 2002;12:173–182.
Mullin WJ, Fregeau-Reid JA, Butler M, Poysa V, Woodrow L, Jessop DB, Raymond D. An interlaboratory test of a procedure to assess soybean quality for soymilk and tofu production. Food Research International. 2001; 34: 669-677.
Raimondi S, Roncaglia L, De Lucia M, Amaretti A, Leonardi A, Pagnoni UM, Rossi M. Bioconversion of soy isoflavones daidzin and daidzein by Bifidobacterium strains. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009; 81: 943-950.
Saccaro DM, Tamime AY, Pilleggi AO PS, Oliveira MN. The viability of three probiotic organisms grown with yoghurt starter cultures during storage for 21 days at 4°C. Int. J. of Dairy Tech. 2009; 62:397-404.
Saidu Janette EP. Development, evaluation and characterization of protein-isoflavone enriched soymilk. Ph. D. Thesis, the Department of Food Science, the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. 2005.
Sowonola OA, Tunde- Akintunde TY, Adedeji F. Nutritional and sensory qualities of soymilk-kunnu blends. African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences. 2005;5 (2) 1-12.
Stijepić M, Glušac J, Durđević-Milošević D, Pešić-Mikulec D. Physicochemical characteristics of soy probiotic yoghurt with inulin additon during the refrigerated storage. Romanian Biotechnological Letters. 2013; 18 (2): 8077-8085.
Sumarna. Changes of raffinose and stachyose in soymilk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria from local fermented foods of Indonesian. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 2008; 4(2), 26- 34.
Thomas TD, Pritchard GG. Proteolytic enzymes of dairy starter cultures. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 1987; 46:245-268.
Tunde-Akintunde and Souley. Effect of Processing Methods on Quality of Soymilk. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009; 8 (8): 1156-1158.
Tunde-Akintunde TY, Souley A. Effect of processing methods on quality of soymilk. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009; 8 (8): 1156-1158.
Uprit S, Mishra HN. Instrumental textural profile analysis of soy fortified pressed chilled acid coagulated curd (Paneer). Intern. J of Food Properties. 2004;7 (3): 367
Wang HL, Kraidej L, Hesseltine CW. Lactic acid fermentation of soybean milk. J Milk and Food Technology. 1974; 37(2): 71-73.
Yadav DN, Chauhan GS, Chauhan OP, Sharma P, Bajpai A. Quality Evaluation of Curd Prepared from Milk-Soymilk Blends. J Food Sci. Technol. 2003; 40 (4): 403.
Yousef M, Nateghi L, Azadi E. Effect of different concentration of fruit additives on some physicochemical properties of yoghurt during storage. Annals of Biological Research. 2013; 4 (4):244-249.