Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Assessment of Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae(AFA) Food Supplement Against Cerebral Cortex Neuronal Injury Induced by Gamma Radiation
Current Issue
Volume 3, 2016
Issue 4 (July)
Pages: 81-89   |   Vol. 3, No. 4, July 2016   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 36   Since Jul. 19, 2016 Views: 870   Since Jul. 19, 2016
Authors
[1]
Tamer M. M. Abu-Amara, Histology and Cytology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
[2]
Abdelghany H. Abdelghany, Anatomy& Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandra University, Alexandra, Egypt.
[3]
Abd EL Razek A. Meselhy, Anatomy& Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
Abstract
Background: Oxidative stress like that occurs after exposure to radiation is an important factor in the genesis of many pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Our nervous system had been found to be affected by oxidative stress. Natural dietary supplements had been proved that they have antioxidants properties that may protect our bodies against the effects of free radicals. For instance, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a unique dietary supplement with scientifically demonstrated health-promoting effects especially on the nervous system. AFA grows naturally and is harvested from a natural environment. Aim of the work: Our goal of this work is to study the radio-protective effect of AFA as a natural antioxidant on the cerebral cortex of adult albino rats against the gamma radiation damaging effects. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out on 24 adult albino rats of local strain weighing 120±3 g which were divided equally into Group 1(C, untreated negative control), Group 2 (A, AFA extract treated): rats were exposed to daily oral intake of AFA extract (94.5mg/kg body weight) for one month. Group 3 (I, Irradiated): rats were exposed to irradiation via exposing them to6 Gy delivered as a fractionated doses of gamma radiation (2 Gy each 3 days). Group 4 (I+A, Irradiated+AFA extract treatment) rats were exposed to a combination of irradiation (in the same way like group 3) plus oral intake of AFA extract for one month. Paraffin sections were prepared for histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: Examined sections showed significant cellular injury in group 3 in comparison to the control groups. Group 4 showed obvious decrease in the pathological changes occurring in comparison with group 2. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that AFA has a radio-protective effect as they reduced the pathological cellular injuries in the cerebral cortex cells induced by accumulated doses of radiation exposure.
Keywords
Radiation, Brain, AFA, Food Supplement, Histology and Histochemsitry
Reference
[1]
Steel, GG. (1996): From targets to genes: a brief history of radio sensitivity. Phys Med Biol., 41: 205-222.
[2]
Tolman, KG., Fonseca, V., Tan, MH., and Dalpiaz, A. (2004):Narrative review: hepatobiliary disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med., 141: 946-956.
[3]
Hall, EJ. (2000): A radiation biologist looks to the future. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys., 46: 1-2.
[4]
Samarth, RM., and Kumar, A. (2003): Mentha Piperia leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow of mice. Indian J Exp Biol., 41: 229-237.
[5]
Bhosle, SM., Huilgol, NG., and Mishra, KP. (2005): Enhancement of radiation induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in tumor cells by ellagic acid. ClinChimActa., 359: 89-100.
[6]
Kunwar, A., Bansal, P., Kumar, SJ., Bag, PP., Paul, P., Reddy, ND., Kumbhare,LB., Jain, VK., Chaubey, RC., Unnikrishnan, MK., and Priyadarsini, KI. (2010): In vivo radio protection studies of 3,3'-diselenodipropionic acid, a selenocystine derivative. Free Rad. Biolo. Medic., 48: 399–410.
[7]
Brazelton, TR., Rossi, FM., Keshet, GI., and Blau, HM. (2000): From marrow to brain: expression of neuronal phenotypes in adult mice. Science., 290: 1775–1779.
[8]
Mattson, MP. (2000): Emerging neuroprotective strategies for Alzheimer’s disease: dietary restriction, telomerase activation, and stem cell therapy. ExpGerontol 35: 489-502.
[9]
Mezey,E., Chandross, KJ., Harta, G., Maki, RA., and McKercher, SR. (2000): Turning blood into brain: cells bearing neuronal antigens generated in vivo from bone marrow. Science., 290: 1779–1782.
[10]
Prockop, DJ., Azizi, SA., Colter,D., Digirolamo, C., Kopen, G., and Phinney, DG. (2000): Potential use of stem cells from bone marrow to repair the extracellular matrix and the central nervous system. Biochem Soc Trans., 28: 341–345.
[11]
Polli, EE. (2000): Transplanting bone-marrow stem cells in the central nervous system. Haematologica., 85: 1009–1010.
[12]
Lu, D., Li, Y., Wang, L., Chen, J., Mahmood, A., and Chopp, M. (2001): Intraarterial administration of marrow stromal cells in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma., 18: 813–819.
[13]
Vincent, EG. (2008): Protection against radiation-the second line of defense. http://www.vincegiuliano.name/PROTECTION%20AGAINST%20RADIATIONc.htm#_ftn1
[14]
Gey, KF. (1998): Vitamins E plus C and interacting conutrients required for optimal health. Acritical and constructive review of epidemiology and supplementation data regarding cardiovascular disease and cancer. Biofactors., 7(1–2), 113–174.
[15]
Shimizu, Y. (1996): Microalgal metabolites: a new perspective. Annual Review of Microbiology., 50: 442.
[16]
Bruno, J. (2001): Edible microalgae A Review of the Health Research.
[17]
Janssen, PAJ., Leysen, JE., Megens, AAHP., and Awouters, FHL.(1999): Doesphenyl ethylamine act as an endogenous amphetamine in some patients? Int J of Neuropsychopharm., 2: 229-240.
[18]
Kusaga, A. (2002): Decreased beta-phenyl ethylamine in urine of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic disorder. No To Hattatsu., 34(3): 243-248.
[19]
Kusanga, A., Yamashita, Y., Koeda, T., Hiratani, M., Kaneko, M., Yamada, S., and Matsuishi, T. (2002): Increased urinary phenyl ethylamine after methylphenidate treatment in children with ADHD. Annals of Neurology., 52(3): 372-374.
[20]
Szabo, A., Billett, E., and Turner, J. (2001): Phenylethylamine, a possible link to the antidepressant effects of exercise? Br J Sports Med., 35: 342-343.
[21]
Zucchi, R., Chiellini, G., and Scanlan TS. (2006): Traceamine-associated receptors and their lignands. British Journal of Pharmacology., 149(8): 967.
[22]
Cunnane, SC., Plourde, M., Pifferi, F., Begin, M., Feart, C., and Barberger Gateau, P. (2009): Fish, docosahexaenoic acid and Alzheimer’s disease. Prog Lipid Res., 48(5): 239–256.
[23]
Belay, AOY. (1993):"Current Knowledge on Potential Health Benefits of Spirulina." Journal of Applied Phycology., 5: 235-241.
[24]
Galli, F., Canestrari, F., and Bellomo, G. (1999): Pathophysiology of oxidative stress and its implication in uremia and dialysis. Contributions to Nephrology., 127:1–31.
[25]
Ginsberg, D. (2000): Blue-Green Algae as a Nutritional Supplement: Evidence for effects on the circulation and function of immune cells in humans, M.Sc Thesis, Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
[26]
Parthasarathy, S., Khan-Merchant, N., Penumetcha, M., and Santanam, N. (2001): Oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology., 8(3): 379–389.
[27]
Cooke, MS., Evans, MD., Dizdaroglu, M., and Lunec, J. (2003): Oxidative DNA damage: mechanisms, mutation, and disease. FASEB Journal., 17(10):1195–1214.
[28]
Jicha, GA. (2010): Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease; Clinical Interventions in Aging., 5: 45–6.
[29]
Paget, GE., and Barnes, JM. (1964): Evaluation of drug activities. Pharmacometrics: Vol.1. New York Academic Press., Pp 161.
[30]
Bancroft, D., and Gamble, M. (2008): Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 6th Ed. Elsevier, Churchill Livingst one, Edinburgh, Scotland., Pp 178-186, 221-224.
[31]
Kaufman, SA., Lowe, SW., Penninger, JM., and Mak, TW. (1998): Differential requirement for caspase-9 in apoptotic pathways in vivo. Cell., 94: 339–352.
[32]
Hammer, Ø., Harper, DAT., Ryan, PD. (2001): PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica., 4(1): 9-15.
[33]
Jagetia, GC. (2007): Radioprotective potential of plants and herbs against the effects of ionizing radiation. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 40: 74-81.
[34]
Kunwar, A., Bansal, P., Kumar, SJ., Bag, PP., Paul, P., Reddy, ND., Kumbhare, LB., Jain, VK., Chaubey, RC., Unnikrishnan, MK., and Priyadarsini, KI. (2010): In vivo radio protection studies of 3,3'-diselenodipropionic acid, a selenocystine derivative. Free Rad. Biolo. Medic., 48: 399–410.
[35]
Saada, HN., Ussama, ZS., and Mahdy, AM. (2003): Effectiveness of Aloevera on the antioxidant status of different tissues in irradiated rats.J. Pharmazie., 58:1.
[36]
Azab, KhSh. (2007): Modulation of radiation injuries in rats receiving multiple doses of Aloe Vera. Egypt. J. Rad. Sci. and Applic., 20:17-28.
[37]
Ammar, AA. (2009): Evaluation of the protective role of wheat germ oil in irradiated rats. Isotope Rad. Res., 41: 911-920.
[38]
Potten, CS. (1985): Radiation and skin, Taylor and Francis Press: 40-54.
[39]
Prasad, KN. (1974): Radiation syndrome. In Human Radiation Biology. New York, Evanston, San Francisco, 152.
[40]
Agarwal, A., and Kale, RK.(2001): Radiation induced oxidative damage: mechanisms and significance. Ind. J. Exp. Boil., 39: 291–309.
[41]
El-Masry, FS., and Saad, TM. (2005): Role of selenium and vitamin E in modification of radiation disorders in male albino rats: Isotope Rad. Res. 37(5): 1261-1273.
[42]
Mrcillo, MA., Rucandio, MI., and Santamaria, J. (2000): Effect of gamma irradiation and lipid peroxidation in rats. Cell Mol. Biol., 92: 337.
[43]
El-Tahawy, NA., and Rezk, RG. (2008): Effectiveness of oregano oil in ameliorating oxidative damage and ultrastructure changes in brain of irradiated rats. Egypt. J. Rad. Sci. Applic.; 21(2):265-280.
[44]
Leelavinothan, P., and Munioppan, L. (2004): Protective role of scope riadulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in STZdiabeticmalewistarrats. BMC Complementary and Alternative. Med.; 4:16.
[45]
Hagen, V. (1989): Biochemical aspects of radiation biology. Experientia., 45:7.
[46]
Liu, TH., Beckman, JS., Freeman, BA., Hogan, EL. and Hsu, CY. (1996): Polyethylene glycol-cojugated superoxide dismutase and catalase reduce ischemic brain injury. Am. J. Physiol., 256: H 389.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved