Chemical, Rheological, Microbial and Microstructural Characteristics of Jameed Made from Sheep, Goat and Cow Buttermilk or Skim Milk
Jameed is basically a hard cheese-like product considered a very stable and safe dried fermented milk product. It is usually made from sheep buttermilk. The aim of this study was using goat and cow buttermilk or skim milk in preparing of jameed instead of sheep buttermilk. Five treatments of jameed were made from sheep, goat and cow buttermilk and also from goat and cow skim milk. The obtained results showed that yield, total solids, ash, salt in moisture, total protein and non-protein-nitrogen values of jameed made from sheep buttermilk were higher than that of jameed prepared from goat or cow butter and goat or cow skim milk. Sheep buttermilk jameed contained low acidity values than those in jameed prepared from goat and cow buttermilk. Utilization of goat and cow skim milk in jameed making decreased titratable acidity and water soluble nitrogen and increased pH values. Jameed made from goat skim milk had the highest fat contents. Utilization of goat and cow buttermilk in jameed manufacture increased total viable bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria and proteolytic bacteria. Sheep buttermilk jameed showed the best wetability followed by goat and cow skim milk jameed. Levels of jameed syneresis were higher in goat and cow buttermilk jameed than that of jameed made from sheep buttermilk. All values of the textural properties were higher in sheep buttermilk jameed than those of the other treatments. From scanning electron microscopy, it is observed that the protein structure was completely different among stored jameed samples. Jameed with good properties can be made from goat and cow buttermilk or skim milk.
Jameed, Cow Buttermilk, Rheological and Microstructural Characteristics, Skim Milk
Tamime AY, Robinson RK. (2007) Yogurt Science and Technology, 3rd edition. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England/CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Chandan RC, Nauth KR. (2012) Yogurt. In: Hui, Y. H. and Chandan, R. C., editors. Handbook of Animal-based Fermented Food and Beverage Technology, 2nd edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Chapter 12. pp. 213–233.
Al-Saed AK, Al-Groum RM, Al-Dabbas MM. (2012) Implementation of hazard analysis critical control point in jameed production. Food Sci. and Tech. Int. 18: 229-239.
Al Groum, Rania M. (2006) A Study of Predominant Microorganisms in the Fermentation of Milk Used in Jameed Production. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jordan.
Quasem JM, Mazahreh AS, Afaneh IA, Al Omari A. (2009) Solubility of solar dried jameed. Pakistan J Nutrition, 8(2): 134-138.
Shaker RR, Jumah RY, Tashtoush B, Zraiy AF. (1999) Manufacture of jameed of using a spray drying process: a preliminary study. Int. J. Dairy Tech. 52(3): 77-80.
AOAC. (2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed, Washington, DC, USA.
Parmar R. (2003) Incorporation of acid whey powders in probiotic yoghurt. M. Sc. Thesis. Major in Biological Sciences, Specialization in Dairy, South Dakota State University, U.S.A.
Ling ER. (1963) A Text - Book of Dairy Chemistry. Vol. 2, Practical, 3rd ed. Champan and Hall, London, England.
Richardson GH. (1985) Standard Methods of the Examination of Daity Products. 15th ed. American Public Health Assocition. Washington, DC.
American Public Health Association. (1992) Standard methods for the examination of dairy products. Amer. Publ. Health Assoc. Inc.12th ed., New York, USA.
Brooker BE, Wells K. (1984) Preparation of dairy products for scanning electron microscopy: etching of epoxy resin-embedded material. J. Dairy Res. 51: 605-613.
SAS. 91991) SAS User’s guide: statistics. SAS Inst, Inc, Cary, NC.
Duncan DB. (1955) Multiple Range and Multiple F-test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
Park YW, Juárez M, Ramos M, Haenlein GFW. (2007) Physico-chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research, 68: 98-113.
Alu’datt MH, Al-Rabadi GJ, Al-Ismail KM, Althnaibat RM, Ereifej K, Rababah T, Alhamad MN, Torley PJ. (2015) Characterization and biological properties of dry fermented product (jameed) manufactured from cow milk: comparison of sun and freeze drying. J. Food Processing and Preservation, 39: 282-291.
Bawadi Hiba A. Al-Sahawneh Safa’a A. (2008) Developing a meal-planning exchange list for traditional dishes in Jordan. J. the American Dietetic Association, 108 (5): 840-846.
Al-Omari A, Quasem JM, Mazahreh AS. (2008) Microbiological analysis of solar and freeze-dried jammed produced from cow and sheep milk with the addition of carrageenan mix to the jameed paste. Pakistan J. Nut. 7: 726–729.
Mazahreh AS, Al Shawabkeh AF and Quasem JM. (2008) Evaluation of the chemical and sensory attributes of solar and freeze-dried jameed produced from cow and sheep milk with the addition of carrageenan mix to the jameed paste. American J. Agr. and Bio. Sci. 3(3): 627-632.
Lobato-Calleros C, Vernon-Carter EJ, Hornelas-Uribe Y. (1998) Microstructure and texture of cheese analogs containing different types of fat. J. Text. Stud. 29: 569–586.
Thomas MA. (1970) Use of calcium co-precipitates in processed cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 25: 23-26.
Awad RA, Abdel-Hamid LB, El-Shabrawy SA. Singh RK. (2002) Texture and microstructure of block type processed cheese with formulated emulsifying salt mixtures. LWT - Food Sci. and Tech. 35: 54-61.
Ong L, Dagastine RR, Sandra E Kentish, Sally L Gras. (2013) Microstructure and composition of full fat Cheddar cheese made with ultrafiltered milk retentate. Foods, 2: 310-313.
Tsigkros D, Folland E, Moate R. Brennan CS. (2003) Feta cheese texture: the effect of caprine and ovine milk concentration. Int. J. Dairy Tech. 56: 233-236.