This study aimed at determining the acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of the seeds of Hanzal Citrullus colocynthis (CCT) to fingerlings of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) . Six graded concentrations of the aqueous extract were determined after a screening test for 48 hours. Concentrations of 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 g/l and a control 0 g/l were used in a renewable bioassay for 96 hours. At various concentrations and exposure periods intoxication symptoms has been recorded. These included excitation, jumping darting movements, odd swimming and immobility. The physiochemical namely pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen tested were within tolerable levels. The lethal concentration which kills 50 % of the population (LC50) after 24 .48, 72 and 96 hours were 1.58, 0.785, 0.56, 0.50 g/L respectively. The time taken for 50% of the population to die (LT50) were 0.53, 16.48, 45.7, 40.74, 120.2, and 194.98 hours at concentrations 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 g/l respectively. The minimum concentration harmful to Tilapia was computed as 25.2mg/l. It was concluded that Citrullus colocynthis aqueous extract is classified as botanical substance with low toxicity to Tilapia fingerlings. It was recommended that this extract should be used but with precautions near fish inhabiting areas.
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