Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News Unsubscribe Page
Social Perception on Medical Marijuana Among Medical Students in Melaka Manipal Medical College: A Cross-Sectional Study
Current Issue
Volume 6, 2019
Issue 2 (June)
Pages: 33-42   |   Vol. 6, No. 2, June 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 1   Since Apr. 16, 2019 Views: 21   Since Apr. 16, 2019
Authors
[1]
Leow Kah Siew, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higer Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
[2]
Tee Jing Yang, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higer Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
[3]
Ushananthini Maniam, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higer Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
[4]
Cecelia Sneha Kondapaneni, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higer Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
[5]
Ian Bong Zhe, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higer Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
Abstract
Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug and with that, it comes with a lot of stereotypes and stigma. The most widely known stigmas would be like it acts as a gateway drug for use of other illicit substances etc. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study that analyses the difference in the social perception of participants based on their gender, race, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, knowledge about medical marijuana and knowledge on people who used or using medical marijuana in order to find out if the medical students need additional education on the topic. The total participation of 215 participants has completed the survey. 87.44% of participants have a neutral perception of medical marijuana. 65.12%(140) felt comfortable discussing medical marijuana, but based on the social perception scores, 87.44% of participants were neutral on their standpoint about medical marijuana. Medical students in Melaka Manipal Medical College has a neutral social perception towards medical marijuana and may be due to the lack of proper knowledge regarding the topic. With an increasing number of countries adopting medical marijuana use, further proper education on the topic should be given to the students in their curriculum as the results suggest lacking proper knowledge on medical marijuana among the medical students.
Keywords
Medical Marijuana, Social Perception, Medical Students
Reference
[1]
J G Bachman, L D Johnson, PM O'Malley, Explaining recent increases in students' marijuana use: impacts of perceived risks and disapproval, 1976 through 1996. American Journal of Public Health. 1998 June; 88 (6): 887-892. PMID: 9618614. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508220/?page=1
[2]
Wilson MC, Bridget F G, James DC, Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders in the United States. The Journal of American Medical Association. 2004 May; 291 (17): 2114-2121. Doi: 10.1001/jama.291.17.2114. Available at https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/198686
[3]
Brian AP, Kevin L K, Michael J F, Madeline AD, Media Exposure and Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents, 2010 December; Doi: 10.1080/10826080802490097. PMID: 19306219. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3008330/
[4]
Melanie M W, Ernest P, Magdalena C, Katherine M K, Sandro G, Deborah SH. Adolescent Marijuana Use from 2002 to 2008: Higher in States with Medical Marijuana Laws, Cause still unclear. Pubmed. 2011 September; 21 (9): 714-6. Doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.06.001. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21820632, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1047279711001785?via%3Dihub
[5]
Fernando AW, James CA, Into the World of Illegal Drug Use: Exposure Opportunity and Other Mechanisms Linking Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, and Cocaine. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2002 May 15. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/155.10.918. Available athttps://academic.oup.com/aje/article/155/10/918/14413
[6]
Mohler KM, Lee J E, Wechsler H, Trends in Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use Among College Students: results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys: 1993-2001. Journal of American College Health. 2003 August; 52 (1): 17-24. PMID: 141717576. Doi: 10.1080/074484039595719. Available athttps://academic.oup.com/aje/article/155/10/918/144130
[7]
James S, Graham M, William B, Michael S, Jennifer C, John M, The Prevalence and Correlates of Hallucinations in Australian Adolescents: Results From a National Survey. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19046858
[8]
Madeline H M, Avshalom C, Antony A, Honalee H, Renate H, Richard S E, Kay M, et al, Persistent Cannabis Users Show Neuropsychological Decline From Childhood to Midlife. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3479587/
[9]
Emmanuel C, Juan-Marc S, Pierre-Alexander P, Olivier R, Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation After Recreational Marijuana Smoking: another “Holiday Heart?” Available athttps://smw.ch/resource/jf/journal/file/view/article/smw/en/smw.2005.11014/smw.2005.11014.pdf/
[10]
A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Cannabis Cigarettes in Neuropathic Pain. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968043/
[11]
Smith LA, Azariah F, Lavender VT, Stoner NS, Bettiol S, Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 12;(11): CD009464. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009464.pub2 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561338/
[12]
Gloss D, Vickrey B, Cannabinoids for epilepsy, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Mar 5;(3): CD009270. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009270.pub3 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595491/
[13]
van den Elsen GA, Ahmed AI, Lammers M, Kramers C, Verkes RJ, van der Marck MA, Rikkert MG, Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: a systematic review, Ageing Res Rev. 2014 Mar; 14: 56-64. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2014.01.007. Epub 2014 Feb 5., https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509411/
[14]
National Conference of State Legislatures. State medical marijuana laws. Nov 9, 2016. [Accessed November 29, 2016]. Available at: ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx.
[15]
Bhattacharyya S, Morrison PD, Fusar-Poli P, Martin-Santos R, Borgwardt S, Winton-Brown T, et al, Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010; 35: 764–774 Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
[16]
Prospective analysis of safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in large unselected population of patients with cancer," by Lihi Bar-Lev Schleider, Raphael Mechoulam, Violeta Lederman, Mario Hilou, Ori Lencovsky, Oded Betzalel, Liat Shbiro, and Victor Novack (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2018.01.023
[17]
Donald I. Abrams, The therapeutic effects of Cannabis and cannabinoids: An update from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine report," (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2018.01.003
[18]
New Jersey Department of Health. Guidelines for patients and caregivers. [Accessed August 10, 2016]. Available at: www.state.nj.us/health/medicalmarijuana/patients/guidelines. [Ref list]
[19]
Lynch ME, Campbell F, Br J Clin, Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Pharmacol. 2011 Nov; 72 (5): 735-44.[PubMed] [Ref list]
[20]
Scott KA, Dalgleish AG, Liu WM. The combination of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances the anticancer effects of radiation in an orthotopic murine glioma model. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13 (12): 2955-2967. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0402.
[21]
D. W. Gross, J Hamm, N. L. Ashworth, D. Quiglet, Majority of Epileptic Marijuana Users Perceive Decreased Seizure Frequency (P5.239). 2004 June 8; 62 (11). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000127623.03766.75. Available at http://n.neurology.org/content/62/11/2095.short
[22]
Mack A, Joy J., Marijuana as Medicine? The Science Beyond the Controversy, PMID: 25077214, Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25077214
[23]
Kondrad E, Reid A, Colorado family physicians' attitudes toward medical marijuana., 2013 Jan-Feb; 26 (1): 52-60. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2013.01.120089., PMID: 23288281, available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23288281
[24]
Cheryl L. Beseler, Deborah S. Hasin, Cannabis dimensionality: Dependence, abuse, and consumption, doi: [10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.011], PMID: 20598807, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3225022/
[25]
Karen E. Moeller, Barbara Woods, Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana, doi: [10.5688/ajpe79685], 2015 Aug 25; 79 (6): 85., PMID: 26430272, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4584377/#B15
[26]
W. M. Burke, M. B Marx Attitudes of professional students toward legal control of psychoactive substances, 1971 Aug; 86 (8): 725–732., PMID: 5115605. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1937150/
[27]
Karin J. H. V, Brendan P. Z, Michael T. L, Sarah E. M, Michael C. N, Nicholas G. M, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on cannabis use initiation and problematic use: a meta-analysis of twin studies. 2010 February 5; Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02831.x. Available at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02831.x
[28]
Waldron I. Patterns and Causes of Gender Differences In Smoking. 1991; 32 (9): 989-1005. Pubmed. PMID: 2047903, Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2047903
[29]
Haney M, Opioid antagonism of cannabinoid effects: differences between marijuana smokers and nonmarijuana smokers.2007 Jun; 32 (6): 1391-403. DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301243, PMID: 17091128, Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17091128
[30]
Amy M Burdett, Noah S. Webb, Terrence D. Hill, Stacy Hoskins Haynes, Jason A. Ford, Religious Involvement and Marijuana Use for Medical and Recreational Purposes, 2018 Apr 21. doi: [10.1177/0022042618770393], PMID: 29899577, Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989257/
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved