Cardiovascular and Other Risk Factors Among Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Students
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors can be classified as non-modifiable risk factors such as age and a family history of premature CVD and modifiable risk factors including hypertension, obesity, smoking, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits, including low consumption of vegetable and fruits. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular and other risk factors as well as the association between these risk factors among students of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. This cross sectional study enrolled 100 apparently healthy students aged 19 and 25 years. A questionnaire was filled and anthropometric measurements were taken. Fasting blood glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) were determined on venous blood samples. The level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) was calculated using the Friedwald formula. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Family history of DM (24.0%) and hypertension (21.0%) were common. The prevalence of alcohol consumption was 7%, high waist-hip ratio 6%, BMI 30 3%, hypertension 9%, DM 3%, impaired fasting glucose 4%, high TC 37%, high LDL 15%, low HDL 1% and hyperuricaemia 9%. Only one female had eGFR 30 – 59, 17% had eGFR 60 – 89 while 82% had eGFR > 90. None of the students had ever smoked and there were no cases of high TG and high waist circumference. There were clustering of these risk factors with 74 participants having at least one of these risk factors and 26 with no risk factor. These risk factors were therefore common among these students and there is the need for more frequent assessment. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment may be necessary for some of these conditions.
Risk Factors, CVD, Cardiovascular, Hypertension, DM
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