Maternal Exposure of Mouse to Low-Dose of Trichloroethane is Associated with Increased Birth Weight and Early Neonatal Neurobehavioral Abnormalities
Maternal exposure to environmental chemicals can adversely affect fetal health. This study aims to identify, in-vivo, the risk of maternal exposure to trichloroethane (TCE) on the birth weight and the neurobehavioral performance of newborns. Groups of female albino mice (F0 generation) were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400 µg/kg BW). Animals were followed up for signs of toxicity and mortality. Neonate's motor behavior including large movement (crawling, pivoting, righting) and small movement (tremor) were assessed. No toxicity adverse signs or mortality were observed in the animals (F0 generation) treated with TCE. The results showed that TCE exposure led to a significant increase in the F1 mouse body weight compared to controls. The results also showed that tremor of neonates of dams exposed to TCE (100µg/kg and 400µg/kg BW) were significantly increased when assessed on postnatal day-1 (PND-1). These findings provide support to a role of the environmental toxicant, TCE, in abnormalities in birth weight and neonatal neurobehavior.
Environmental Toxicant, Trichloroethene, Motor Behavior, Tremor, Mouse Neonate
House, R. A., Liss, G. M., Wills, M. C., Holness, D. L. (1996) Paresthesias and sensory neuropathy due to, 1,1-trichloroethane, Journal occupational environmental Medicine 38, 123-124.
Wang, G., Cai, P., Ansari, G. A. S., and Khan, M. F. (2007) Oxidative and nitrosative stress in trichloroethene-mediated autoimmune response, Toxicology 229, 186–193.
York, R. G., Sowry, B.M., Hastings, L., Manson, J. M. (1982) Evaluation of teratogenicity and neurotoxicity with maternal inhalation exposure to methyl chloroform, Journal of Toxicol. environ. Health 9, 251-266.
Maurissen, J. P., Shankar, M.R., Zielke, G. J. (1994) Lack of developmental cognitive and other neurobehavioral effects following maternal exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane in rats, Toxicologist 14, 163.
Schneider, M. L., Moore, C. F., and Adkins, M. M. (2011) The effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior: rodent and primate studies, Neuropsychology Review 21, 186-203.
Wang, G., Wang, J., Ma, H., Ansari, G. A. S., and Khan, M. F. (2013) N-Acetylcysteine protects against trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity by attenuating oxidative stress, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 273, 189-195.
Warren, D. A., Reigle, T. G., Muralidhara, S., and Dallas, C. (1998) Schedule-controlled operant behavior of rats during 1,1,1-trichloroethane inhalation: relationship to blood and brain solvent concentrations, Neurotoxicol Teratology 20, 143-153.
Warren, D. A., Bowen, S. E., Jennings, W. B., Dallas, C. E., and Balster, R. L. (2000) Biphasic Effects of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane on the Locomotor Activity of Mice: Relationship to Blood and Brain Solvent Concentrations, Toxicological Sciences 56, 365-373.
Nagao, T., Kawachi, K., Kagawa, N., and Komada, M. (2014) Neurobehavioral evaluation of mouse newborns exposed prenatally to low-dose bisphenol A, Journal of Toxicological Science 39, 231-235.
Wang, G., Wang, J., Luo, X., Ansari, G. A. S., and Khan, M. F. (2014) Nitrosative Stress and Nitrated Proteins in Trichloroethene-Mediated Autoimmunity, PLOS ONE 9, e98660.
Mackay, C. J., Campbell, L., Samuel, A.M. (1987) Behavioral changes during exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane: time-course and relationship to blood solvent levels, American Journal Ind Medicine 11, 223–239.
EPA. (2007) Toxicological Review of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). EPA/635/R-03/013. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Melani, A., Pantoni, L., and Bordoni, F. (2003) The selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 reduces striatal transmitter outflow, turning behavior and ischemic brain damage induced by permanent focal ischemia in the rat, Brain Research 959, 243-250.
Nagao, T., Kagawa, N., and Komada, M. (2013) Newly developed mouse newborn behavioral testing method for evaluating the risk of neurotoxicity of environmental toxicants, Journal of Applied Toxicology 33, 1514-1519.
Topham, J. C. (1980) Do induced sperm-head abnormalities in mice specifically identify mammalian mutagens rather than carcinogens, Mutat Res 74, 379-387.
Griffin, J. M., Blossom, S. J., Jackson, S. K., Gilbert, K. M., Pumford, N. R. (2000) Trichloroethylene accelerates an autoimmune response by Th1 T cell activation in MRL+/+ mice, Immunopharmacology 46, 123-137.
Snyder, R., Andrews, L. S. (1996) Toxic effects of solvents and vapors. In: Klaassen, CD; ed. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basis Science of Poisons, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Murata, K., Inoue, O., Akutsu, M. (2010) Neuromotor effects of short-term and long-term exposures to trichloroethylene in workers, Am J Ind Med 53, 915-921.
Kulig, B. M. (1987) The effects of chronic trichloroethylene exposure on neurobehavioral functioning in the rat, Neurotoxicol Teratology 9, 171-178.
Al-Griw, M. A., Salama, N. M., Treesh, S. A., Algadi, L. N., and Elnfati, A. H. (2015) Cell Death in Mouse Brain following Early Exposure to Trichloroethane (TCE), International Journal of Advanced Research 3, 1424-1430.
Lane, R. W., Riddle, B.L.; Borzelleca, J.F. (1982) Effects of 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in drinking water on reproduction and development in mice., Toxicol Appl Pharmacology 63, 409–421.
Nilsson, K. B. (1987) Effects of 1,1,1-trichloroethane on synaptosomal calcium accumulation in mouse brain, Pharmacol Toxicology 61, 215–219.
Kumar, P., Prasad, A. K., Mani, U. (2001) Trichloroethylene induced testicular toxicity in rats exposed by inhalation, Hum Exp Toxicology 20, 585-589.
Jones, H. E., Kunko, P. M., Robinson, S. E. (1996) Developmental consequences of intermittent and continuous prenatal exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane in mice, Pharmacol Biochem Behavior 55, 635–646.
Maurissen, J. P. J., Shankar, M. R., Zielke, G. J. (1993) Examination of rats for developmental neurotoxicologic effects from maternal exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI. Submitted under TSCA 4; NTIS No. OTS0572992.
Armentrout, D. C., Caple, J. (2001) The jittery newborn, J. Pediatr. Health Care 15, 147-149.
Rosman, N. P., Donnelly, J. H., Braun, M. A. (1984) The jittery newborn and infant: a review, Dev. Behav. Pediatr 5, 263-273.
Parker, S., Zuckerman, B., Baucher, H., Frank, D., Vinci, R., Cabral, H. (1990) Jitteriness in full-term neonates: prevalence and correlates, Pediatrics 85, 17-23.
Futagi, Y., Suzuki, Y., Toribe, Y., Kato, T. (1999) Neurologic outcomes of infants with tremor within the first year of life, Pediatr. Neurology 21, 557-561.