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Migration and Psychological Health: Implications for Intervention in Communities
Author:
Robert J. Kleiner,  Tom Sorensen,  Odd Steffen Dalgard
ISBN: 978-1-941926-19-2
8.3 x 10.6 inches, 417pp, Paperback: $180
Published Date: October, 2015
To order hard copies, please contact book@openscienceonline.com
Introduction
It is our hope that this book will be an exciting adventure for the reader, as it was exciting for those of us who have lived through it and are living through it now. In a sense it is historical because it deals with the period from about 1960 to the present. However, it also seeks to capture the nature of the researchers’ experiences in the development and elaboration of their research and applied interests. In the academic world, we often talk in terms of how our early intellectual interests and training influenced the kinds of research issues and questions we study, the theoretical approaches we test, and the methods that we use to deal with these issues and questions. However, this is only partly true. The actual process is somewhat different and the events that occur to guide us are not always as technical as they sound, and these events and their ramifications are what makes it very exciting.

The book will describe how we started out in our respective research careers by providing some of the early finding from our respective research efforts dealing with the relationships of traditional demographic variables such as age, education, occupation, race, marital status, migration, social mobility, etc., to psychological health measures of various kinds and to subjective evaluations of quality of life; and how migration and social mobility emerged as fundamental issues to be dealt with in this process.

The process begins with our early findings which were quite different from the general thinking and data in the several social science disciplines, i.e., “serendipitous” or unexpected findings. These findings led us to re-think the definitions, the explanations of the earlier findings, and reevaluate the methods that prevailed. From these efforts, new thinking and explanations were required. It also resulted in new research with these new insights and new methods that were appropriate for evaluating the new thinking. In more technical terms, we were looking for new theories and explanatory models to account for the findings; and we needed revised or different research methods for evaluating them.
Contents
The Full Book PDF  
Front Matter  
Part I  
Chapter 1 A Perspective on Basic and Applied Research: Why It Is Necessary  
      1.1 Definitional Issue  
      1.2 Origins of and Current Consequences of the “Applied” and “Basic” Distinction  
      1.3 Our View of the Issue  
      1.4 Multiple Realities  
Chapter 2 Changing Character of Migration Research: New Theoretical Models and New Research Methods Required in the Transition from Experimental to Cross–Cultural Perspectives  
      2.1 Early Explanations  
      2.2 The Strategies to Explain Inconsistencies  
      2.3 What Constitutes a “Case”  
      2.4 Sense of “Quality of Life” and “Well–Being” in Defining “Caseness”  
      2.5 Migration and the Issue of Definition  
      2.6 Traditional Experimental and Cross–Cultural Perspectives: Relevance and Implications  
      2.7 The Economics and Feasibility of Changing Demands  
      2.8 The Issue of Incidence and Prevalence Studies  
      2.9 Nature of Causal Explanations  
Chapter 3 Traditional Experimental and Cross–Cultural Perspectives: Relevance and Implications  
      3.1 Redefinition of “Migration” and Its Ramifications  
Chapter 4 Classical Studies: Early Studies of Migration and Mental Illness (Based on Hospital Admissions)  
      4.1 Early Empirical Perspective  
      4.2 International Migration  
      4.3 Internal Migration or In–Migration (Empirically Interchangeable)  
      4.4 What Can We Learn from the Early Studies?  
Chapter 5 Concepts, Theories and Hypotheses  
      5.1 New Theoretical Perspective  
      5.2 Stress  
      5.3 Coping  
      5.4 Social Environment, Stress and Mental Health  
Part II  
Chapter 6 Studies That Changed Our Perspective: Illustrative Serendipity Findings and Proposed Explanations  
      6.1 Ramifications of Serendipity Findings  
      6.2 Migration and Social Mobility: The Case of the United States  
         6.2.1 Migration  
         6.2.2 Social (Status) Mobility  
      6.3 Migration, Social Mobility and Mental Disorder: The Case of Norway  
      6.4 Preliminary Explanatory “Hypotheses”  
      6.5 Insights from Case Histories  
      6.6 Transient Migration (Commuting) and Risk of Mental Disorder in Norway  
      6.7 Migration, Cultural Change and Psychological Health  
      6.8 “Culture Shock”  
         6.8.1 The Influence of Gender in the Migration Experience  
         6.8.2 Acculturation and Psychological Health in Young People  
         6.8.3 Differences Between Ethnic Groups  
Chapter 7 Proposed Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Psychological Health Status: The Social and Interpersonal Models of Psychological Disorders  
      7.1 Anomie, Alienation and Social Network Models  
      7.2 Social Networks as Support Systems and Buffers: Linkage to Psychological Health Status  
      7.3 The Socio-Cultural Integration of Local Communities  
      7.4 Social Interaction/Social Network Stress and Psychological Health Status  
      7.5 Perception and Reality of Social Structural Integration Among African–American and White Adolescent Networks  
      7.6 Role Models, Network Consensus and Juvenile Delinquency  
Chapter 8 Proposed Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Psychological Health Status3  
      8.1 Rethinking Definitions of Psychological Health  
      8.2 Theoretical Orientation  
      8.3 Macro Sociological and Social–Psychological Origins  
      8.4 Micro Sociological and Social–Psychological Origins  
      8.5 Conceptual Definitions  
      8.6 Modification and Application of the Resultant Weighted Valence Theory  
      8.7 The Social and Interpersonal Models of Psychological Disorders  
Chapter 9 International Migration, In–Migration and Social Mobility: A Comprehensive Theoretical Approach  
      9.1 Systematic Definitions of Social and Individual Movements  
      9.2 Comprehensive Theory of International Migration and In–Migration  
         9.2.1 Is it Important to Know the Values and Norms of the Cultural Context from Which the Migrant Came to Explain Psychological Health Status?  
         9.2.2 Is the Nature of the Communication Between the Migrant and His/Her Parents to the Family Important Factors in His/Her Psychological Health Status?  
         9.2.3 Is It Important to Know with Whom the Migrant Moved?  
      9.3 “Comprehensive Theory” of Social Mobility  
      9.4 Implications of “Socio-Cultural Change” Theoretical Perspective  
Part III  
Chapter 10 Methodological Problems and Issues in Comparative Urban Research and/or Cross–Cultural Urban Research  
      10.1 Emerging Methodological Issues  
      10.2 Dimensions of Cross–Cultural Analyses and Comparative Urban Studies  
      10.3 The Meaning of “Urban” Research and Current Limitations  
      10.4 What Makes Urban Data Valuable  
      10.5 The Meaning of Comparability of Data Sets  
Chapter 11 Development and Evaluation of a Cross–Cultural Approach to Migration: Nigeria and Israel  
      11.1 Ramifications for Cross-Cultural Research  
      11.2 Direction of Migration  
      11.3 Age of Migrants  
      11.4 Occupation and Migration  
      11.5 Education of Migrants3  
      11.6 Functional and Conflict Theoretical Issues in Developing Approaches to the Problem  
      11.7 Migration, Urbanism and Psychological Condition (Psychoneurotic Symptom Scores or PNS)  
         11.7.1 Migratory Status and PNS  
         11.7.2 Urbanism and PNS  
         11.7.3 Interaction of Migration with Urbanism and PNS  
      11.8 Place of Migration and Urbanism in Openness of the Opportunity Structure  
         11.8.1 Hypothesis: Migration Flows from Objectively Closed Systems to Relatively Open Systems  
         11.8.2 Hypothesis: From a Subjective Perspective, Migration Flows from Perceived Closed Systems to Perceived Open Systems  
         11.8.3 How Redundant are Status Opportunity Structure and Economic Security?  
      11.9 Migration, Urbanism, Relative Economic Security: Perception of Economic Security  
         11.9.1 Hypothesis: Migration Flows from a Relatively Objective Insecure System to a Relatively Objective Secure Economical System  
         11.9.2 Hypothesis: Migration Flows from a Perceived Economically Insecure System to a Perceived Economically Secure Systems  
      11.10 Evaluation of Hypotheses Based on Interrelationship of Anomie and Perception of Anomie: Nigeria  
      11.11 Evaluation of Hypotheses Based on the Interrelationship of Objective Economic Insecurity and Perception of Economic Security: Israel  
Chapter 12 Network Analyses in Urban Research: New Perspectives  
      12.1 Overview of the Problem  
      12.2 New Research Strategies  
      12.3 One Specific Strategy  
      12.4 The First Findings and Their Meaning  
      12.5 Social Networks and Psychological Impairment in Urban Research: One Alternative Approach to the Urban Environment  
         12.5.1 Emerging Approach to Urban Research  
         12.5.2 Theoretical Perspective  
         12.5.3 Definition of Psychological Impairment  
         12.5.4 Description of the Study  
         12.5.5 Major Substantive Findings  
         12.5.6 Discussion and Implications  
      12.6 Epidemiology of Opportunities for Social Interaction and Psychological Health Status: New Horizons  
         12.6.1 Role of Epidemiology in Social Research  
         12.6.2 Impetus for New Research  
         12.6.3 Psychological Health Status  
         12.6.4 Clarification of the Meaning of “Risk Factors”  
         12.6.5 Study Parameters  
         12.6.6 Sources of Data  
         12.6.7 Potential for Generating Testable Hypotheses  
Chapter 13 Migration, Cultural Change and Psychological Health  
      13.1 “Culture Shock”  
      13.2 The Influence of Gender in the Migration Experience  
      13.3 Acculturation and Psychological Health in Young People  
      13.4 Differences Between Ethnic Groups  
Chapter 14 A Formal Theory of Migration and the Predictive Potential Multiple Reality Approach  
      14.1 The Need for a Formal Theory for Predicting Social Outcomes  
      14.2 Assumptions Underlying the Model  
      14.3 The Predictive Potential of the Formal Model for Predicting the Migration Decision and the Decision’s Effects  
      14.4 Involuntary Migration  
Chapter 15 Small Group Tradition in Social Therapeutic Modalities in Psychiatry  
      15.1 Reintroduction of Small Group Traditions in Psychiatry  
      15.2 Social Rehabilitation in the Psychiatric Hospital–Field Experiment (USA)  
      15.3 Rehabilitation Moves into the Community–Field Experiment (USA)  
      15.4 Small Group or Social Network Studies in Norway  
         15.4.1 The Vinderen Study  
         15.4.2 Changing Properties of Small Social Networks in Treatment of Psychiatric Patients and in Prevention of Psychological Disorders Among High Risk People  
         15.4.3 The Intervention Project  
      15.5 Understanding Change in the Two Network Experiments (Kleiner et al 4)  
Part IV  
Chapter 16 Community Health Profile: A Tool for Community Development and Prevention of Psychiatric Problems  
      16.1 Community Diagnoses and/or Community Profiles for Planning of Mental Health Prevention/Promotion and Development of Psychiatric Services–Some Evidence from Norway  
      16.2 Migration and Mental Health in Community Health Profiles  
      16.3 Mental Health Promotion  
      16.4 Community Mental Health Profile  
         16.4.1 The Village Case: Problems When a Great Proportion of the Population Leaves the Community  
         16.4.2 “Coastal” Compared with “Rural Inland”  
         16.4.3 Forced Migration and Mental Health  
      16.5 Intent of Mental Health Intervention  
      16.6 A National Health Indicator System  
Chapter 17 The Mental Health of In–Migrants and Natives in a Community Perspective  
      17.1 Migratory Status in Lofoten  
         17.1.1 Introduction  
         17.1.2 Theoretical Roots  
         17.1.3 Population–The Context of the Study  
Chapter 18 Migration, Urbanism, Life Events and Psychological Status  
      18.1 Significance of Life Events  
      18.2 Community Studies, Migration and Psychological Health Status  
         18.2.1 Migration, Life Events, Psychological Health and Well-Being  
         18.2.2 Migratory Status, Yield in Life Events and Outcome Measures  
         18.2.3 Migratory Status, Life Events and Outcome Measures  
      18.3 Structural Differences Between Migratory Status Groups and Potency of Life Events  
      18.4 Problematic Social and Interpersonal Life Events and Mental Health and Quality of Life by Migratory Status  
      18.5 Social Support/Integration, Social Network Index, HSCL25 and Cantril Index  
      18.6 Cumulative Effects of Age, Sex, Life Events and Social Indices on Outcome Measures by Migratory Status  
Chapter 19 The Community Intervention Strategy: Strategies for the Mobilization and Use of Community Resources for Psychological Health and Well–Being as Part of Treatment, Prevention and Planning  
      19.1 Community Psychiatry  
      19.2 Multiple Realities Model  
      19.3 Planning for Community Proximal to Psychiatric Health Services  
         19.3.1 Community Psychiatric Responsibility  
         19.3.2 The Strategic Network Model  
         19.3.3 Using the Strategic Network Model  
      19.4 Mental Health Promotion with a Local Community Focus  
      19.5 The Accessibility Project  
      19.6 Added Observations from the Community Projects  
      19.7 Multiple Realities in an Applied Perspective  
      19.8 Concluding Remarks  
Chapter 20 Crossing Boundaries and Psychological Health: Implications for Research, Planning and Intervention  
      20.1 The Role of Explanatory Theories of Psychological Disorders and Sense of Well–Being  
      20.2 Origins of Insights and Their Impact on New Thinking  
      20.3 Emerging Focus on the “Community”  
      20.4 Importance of Mobility: Migration in Particular  
      20.5 The Meaning of “Boundaries” and Their Significance for Understanding Psychological Health and Quality of Life  
References  
Topical Index  
Back Matter  
Author(s)
Origin of the International Team of Authors
Prior to 1969, Dr. Kleiner was involved in major research funded by American funding sources including the National Institute of Mental Health. During those same years, Drs. Dalgard (now deceased) and Sorensen were also involved in major research funded by Norwegian sources, including the Norwegian Research Council. In 1969, Dr. Kleiner came to Norway as a Research Professor, funded by both American (including Fulbright) and Norwegian (including the Norwegian Research Council) funding sources.

In 1969, the three researchers first met and immediately found that their theoretical and research interests overlapped dramatically; they immediately began forty-one years of collaboration in research and publications. In the l980s and l990s, much of their research was in Norway and funded, in the main, by Norwegian sources. This included Dr. Kleiner working at the Center for Social Network and Health at Ulleval Hospital during the 1990-1991 academic year.

However, during this period, their research has also included, at various times, psychological health, juvenile delinquency, suicide, crime, subjective quality of life (or sense of well-being), general health issues, twin studies and mental disorder, etc. Here they will use the concepts of psychological health status and felt quality of life as the main outcome concepts, and the various operational definitions of the outcome measures used in the intervening years will be subsumed under these concepts.

During the early years, they were primarily concerned with traditional epidemiological studies in which correlation studies were made relating demographic variables such as migratory status, social mobility, and ethnicity to incidence and prevalence of the various individual and social problems of interest to them, individually or collectively at the time. As these efforts developed and expanded, it became more and more evident that their assumptions and others’ assumptions as well about the meanings and importance of such variables were highly questionable.

In the process, variables were defined more precisely which had major implications for their significance and for the task of the researcher. This required the researcher to learn about the social and cultural properties of the locus of socialization, learn about the socialization process itself, and the meaning of the relevant variables and experiences to those experiencing them.. The theoretical origins and influences on their thinking derive from the pioneering and seminal work of Kurt Lewin and Alexander Leighton (a student of Adolph Meyer).
Readership
This book is for all those in the different social sciences and service disciplines that are interested in social and psychological problems that need to be studied and acted upon, i.e., the merger of ‘basic’ and ‘applied’ orientations. That is also why the title includes ‘Psychological Problems and Intervention.’ The book is also for those policy makers, administrators in health related governmental and community agencies, and community leaders that are interested in dealing constructively with these problems in their areas of concern. For a few people interested in migration, social mobility, and social change as intellectual issues of interest, these issues are important and need to be included in any historical-sociological-anthropological-psychological-political-economic projects of some scope and magnitude. We also feel it is important to take the time to raise some of the issues, and then show how we dealt with them, and with what success.
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