Blood Levels of Some Toxic and Essential Metals Among Rural and Urban Dwellers of Different Blood Groups in Edo State, Nigeria
Introduction: Toxic metals pollutions in the environment as a result of human activities have resulted to some health challenges in the general population. The near absence of record keeping in our setting has made identification of candidate metal difficult and symptomatic management a challenge to health care providers. Objective: This study seeks to know whether the rural and urban dwellers are disproportionately exposure and whether the metal levels vary according to ABO blood group types. Materials and methods: Blood levels of mercury, cadmium, nickel, lead, chromium, arsenic, copper manganese and iron as well as ABO blood grouping were determined in 100 rural and 103 urban dwellers using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Bulk scientific model 210VGP) and serological technique respectively. Results: Rural dwellers had significantly higher serum levels of copper (p<0.001), manganese (p=0.008) and arsenic (p<0.001) than urban dwellers while urban dwellers had significantly higher levels of serum iron (p=0.003) and chromium (p<0.001). The differences in the levels of lead, cadmium and nickel were not significant. Serum copper, iron, nickel and lead were significantly lower (p<0.001) in individuals with blood group O but higher (p<0.001) in blood group A, AB and B respectively. Conversely, serum cadmium and mercury were significantly higher (p<0.001) in blood group O than non-O blood groups while Arsenic was higher (p<0.001) in blood group B than the other blood group types. Conclusion: Both rural and urban dwellers were equally exposed to environmental pollutants. The distributions of metals are different according to blood group types. The control of environmental pollution is essential in both rural and urban areas in order to avoid the associated adverse effects.
Environmental Exposure, Toxic and Essential Metals, ABO Blood Group Types
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