Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Blood Levels of Some Toxic and Essential Metals Among Rural and Urban Dwellers of Different Blood Groups in Edo State, Nigeria
Current Issue
Volume 3, 2018
Issue 6 (November)
Pages: 110-116   |   Vol. 3, No. 6, November 2018   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 8   Since Jan. 18, 2019 Views: 263   Since Jan. 18, 2019
Mathias Abiodun Emokpae, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
Lawrence Victory Ogana, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
Dan Ugbomoiko, Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Central Hospital, Edo State Ministry of Health, Benin City, Nigeria.
Introduction: Toxic metals pollutions in the environment as a result of human activities have resulted to some health challenges in the general population. The near absence of record keeping in our setting has made identification of candidate metal difficult and symptomatic management a challenge to health care providers. Objective: This study seeks to know whether the rural and urban dwellers are disproportionately exposure and whether the metal levels vary according to ABO blood group types. Materials and methods: Blood levels of mercury, cadmium, nickel, lead, chromium, arsenic, copper manganese and iron as well as ABO blood grouping were determined in 100 rural and 103 urban dwellers using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Bulk scientific model 210VGP) and serological technique respectively. Results: Rural dwellers had significantly higher serum levels of copper (p<0.001), manganese (p=0.008) and arsenic (p<0.001) than urban dwellers while urban dwellers had significantly higher levels of serum iron (p=0.003) and chromium (p<0.001). The differences in the levels of lead, cadmium and nickel were not significant. Serum copper, iron, nickel and lead were significantly lower (p<0.001) in individuals with blood group O but higher (p<0.001) in blood group A, AB and B respectively. Conversely, serum cadmium and mercury were significantly higher (p<0.001) in blood group O than non-O blood groups while Arsenic was higher (p<0.001) in blood group B than the other blood group types. Conclusion: Both rural and urban dwellers were equally exposed to environmental pollutants. The distributions of metals are different according to blood group types. The control of environmental pollution is essential in both rural and urban areas in order to avoid the associated adverse effects.
Environmental Exposure, Toxic and Essential Metals, ABO Blood Group Types
Orisakwe OE. Lead and Cadmium in Public Health in Nigeria: Physicians Neglect and Pitfall in Patient Management. N Am J Med Sci. 2014; 6 (2): 61–70.
Khan S, Lin AJ, Zhang SZ, Hu QH, Zhu YG. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in lettuce grown in the soils contaminated with long-term wastewater irrigation. J Hazard Mater. 2008; 152:506-515.
Nduka JK, Orisakwe OE, Ezenweke LO, Chendo MN, Ezenwa TE. Heavy metal contamination of foods by refuse dump sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008; 1 (8):941-948.
Aelion CM, Davis HT, McDermott S, Lawson AB. Soil metal concentrations and toxicity: associations with distances to industrial facilities and implications for human health. Science of the Total Environment 2009; 407:2216–2223.
Caussy D, Gochfeld M, Gurzau E, Neagu C, Ruedel H. Lessons from case studies of metals: investigating exposure, bioavailability, and risk. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2003; 56:45–51.
Szynkowska MI, Pawlaczyk A, Leśniewska E, Paryjczak T. Toxic Metal Distribution in Rural and Urban Soil Samples Affected by Industry and Traffic. Polish J Environ Stud 2009; 18 (6): 1141-1150.
Valko MM, Morris H, Cronin MTD. Metals toxicity and oxidative stress. Current Med Chem 2005; 12 (10): 1161-1208.
Igharo G O, Anetor JI, Osibanjo OO, Osadolor HB, Dike KC. Toxic metal levels in Nigerian electronic waste workers indicate occupational metal toxicity associated with crude electronic waste management practices. Biokemistri 2014; 26 (4): 107–113.
Moore FA, Shakeri A, Modabberi S. Toxic metal contamination and distribution in the Shivaz industrial complex zone soil, south shiraz, Iran. World Appl Sci J 2009; 6:413-425.
Ezejiofor TIN, Ezejiofor AN, Udebuani AC, Ezeji EU, Ayalogbu EA, Azuwuike CO, Adjero LA, Ngwogu KO. Environmental metals pollutants load of a densely populated and heavily industrialized commercial City of Aba, Nigeria. J Toxicol Environment Health Scis 2013; 5 (1):1-11.
Ibeto CN, Okoye COB. High level of heavy metal in blood of urban population in Nigeria. Res J Environ Sci 2010; 4:(4):71-382.
Orisakwe OE, Igwilo IO, Afonne OJ, Maduabuchi UJ. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian sachet water. Arch Environ Health. 2006; 61:209–313.
Orisakwe OE, Asomugha R, Afonne OJ, Obi E, Chilaka KC, Dioka CE. Effect of industrial effluents on soil and water qualities in Nnewi, Nigeria. J Health Sci. 1999; 45:177–83.
Nduka JK, Orisakwe OE, Ezenweke LO, Chendo MN, Ezenwa TE. Heavy metal contamination of foods by refuse dump sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria. Scientific World J. 2008; 1 (8):941–948.
Emokpae MA, Akpologun LB (2015). The use of Atherogenic index of Plasma in assessing the potential Cardiovascular risk among ABO Blood groups in Sickle Cell Disease Patients. Malay J Med Biol Res 2015; 2 (3):247-251.
Emokpae MA, Nnadi JC. Serum levels of some metallic elements among students of tertiary institution with different ABO blood groups in Nigeria. Sokoto J Med Lab Sci 2017; 2 (2):89-97.
Okhakhu PA. Assessment of the urban climate of Benin City, Nigeria. J Environ Earth Sci 2016; 6 (1): 2224-3216.
Paulline VH, Uyilawa U. The owner of land: The Benin Obas and Colonial Forest Reservation in the Benin Division, Southern Nigeria. J Afr History 2009; 50 (2): 223-246.
Ogbeibu AE. Biostatistic: A practical approach to research and Data handling: 2nd Ed Mindex Publishing company, Benin, Nigeria. 2014; Pp 20-22.
Ochei J, Kolhatkar A. Medical Laboratory Science, Theory and Practice. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, 2007 P. 73-90.
Rahman S, Khalid N, Zaidi JH, Ahmad S, Iqbal MZ. Non occupation lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults. J Zhepang Uni Sci 2006; 9: 732-737.
Gidikova P, Sandeva G, Deliradeva R, Prakova G, Platikanova M. Blood concentration of heavy metals among environmentally exposed residents of Stara Zagora Municipality (Bulgaria). Trakia J Scis 2015; 4:33-40.
Chia SE, Chan OY, Sam CT, Heng BH. Blood cadmium levels in non-occupationally exposed adult subjects in Singapore. Sci Total Environ, 1994; 145 (1-2):119-123.
Forte G, Madeddu R, Tolu P, Asara Y, Marchal JA, Bocca B. Reference intervals for blood Cd and Pb in the general population of Sardinia (Italy). Int J Hyg Envir Heal, 2001; 214:102-109.
Khassouani CE, Soulaymani R, Mauras Y, Allain P. Blood cadmium concentration in the population of the Rabat area, Morocco. Clinica Chimica Acta, 2000; 302 (1-2):155-160.
Menke A, Muntner P, Silbergeld EK, Platz EA, Guallar E. Cadmium levels in urine and mortality among U.S. Adult. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117:190-196.
Nawrot TS, Van Hecke E, Thijs L, Richart T, Kuznetsova T, Jin Y, et al. Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden of an environmentally exposed population. Environ Health Perspect. 2008; 116:1620-1628.
Varoni MV, Palomba D, Gianorso S, Anania V. Cadmium as an environmental factor of hypertension in animals: New perspectives on mechanisms. Vet Res Commun. 2003; 27 (suppl 1):807-810.
Satarug S, Nishijo M, Lasker JM, Edwards RJ, Moore MR. Kidney dysfunction and hypertension: Role for cadmium, p450 and heme oxygenases? Tohoku J Exp Med. 2006; 208:179–202.
Mordukhovich I, Wright RO, Hu H, Amarasiriwardena C, Baccarelli A, Litonjua A, et al. Associations of toenail arsenic, cadmium, mercury, manganese, and lead with blood pressure in the normative aging study. Environ Health Perspect. 2012; 120:98–104.
Han J, Shang Q, Du Y. Review: Effect of environmental cadmium pollution on human health. Health. 2009; 1:159–166.
Kobayashi E, Suwazono Y, Honda R, Dochi M, Nishijo M, Kido T, et al. Serial changes in urinary cadmium concentrations and degree of renal tubular injury after soil replacement in cadmium- polluted rice paddies. Toxicol Lett. 2008; 176:124–130.
Hernández-Avila, M., Smith, D., Meneses, F., Sanin, L. H., Hu, H., The influence of bone and blood lead on plasma lead levels in environmentally exposed adults. Environ Health Perspect, 1998; 106 (8):473–477.
Chen, C., Wang, X., Chen, D., Li, G., Ronnenberg, A., Watanabe, H., Wang, X., Ryan, L., Christiani, D. C., Xu, X., Tofu consumption and blood lead levels in young Chinese adults. Am J Epidemiol, 2001; 153 (12):1206-1212.
Apostoli P, Baj A, Bavazzano P, Ganzi A., Neri G, Ronchi A, Soleo L, Di LL, Spinelli P, Valente T, Minoia C. Blood lead reference values: the results of an Italian polycentric study. Sci Total Environ 2002; 287 (1-2):1-11.
World Health Organization. Health risks of heavy metals from long-range transboundary air pollution. WHO, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007.
World Health Organization. Trace elements in human nutrition and health. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996.
Ojo OI, Ogundare MB, Adebayo OL. Toxic and essential metals in staple foods commonly consumed in Ekiti State South Nigeria. Int J Chem 2015; 7 (4):155.
Amjadi O, Rafiei A, Ajami A, Valadan-Khan Z, Hajilodi M, Janbabaei G. Blood groups: in Health and Diseases. Res Mole Med 2015; 3 (4):1-9.
Alasia D, Emem-chioma P, Wokoma F, Okojaja R, Bellgam H, Iyagba A, et al. NDT Plus 2 (suppl 2): ii1733-. Abstracts from the World Congress of Nephrology; May 22-26; Milan, Italy. 2009.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved