Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Room Temperature Two-Step Synthesis of Cadmium Telluride Films
Current Issue
Volume 1, 2014
Issue 2 (June)
Pages: 11-17   |   Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2014   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 36   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1660   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Authors
[1]
Magdalena Osial, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteur 1, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.
[2]
Justyna Widera, Department of Chemistry, Adelphi University, 1 South Avenue, NY 11530 Garden City, United States.
[3]
Krystyna Jackowska, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteur 1, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.
Abstract
CdTe films were prepared at room temperature by using two-step method. In the first step, Cd layer was deposited electrochemically on Pt substrate and in the second step, CdTe films were formed chemically by dipping substrate covered with Cd into the solution containing telluride ions. The properties of deposited CdTe films were investigated. Using XRD method, it was found that the formed CdTe films are polycrystalline with cubic structure. Raman and XPS spectra revealed that deposits contain not only CdTe but also some amount of TeO2 and probably CdO or Cd(OH)2, as well. The optical band gap energy determined using UV-Vis spectra was in the range of 1.4-1.6 eV depending on the length of time of Cd deposition. The changes in deposited films photoactivity under illumination in the telluride solution indicated the formation of n-type of CdTe films.
Keywords
Cadmium Telluride, Thin Films, Two-Step Method, Crystallinity, Chemical Composition, Morphology
Reference
[1]
Sarmah KC, Das HL. Effect of substrate temperature on photoconductivity in CdTe thin films. Thin Solid Films 1991;198:29-34.
[2]
Han MS, Kang TW, Leem JH, Lee MH,. Kim KJ, Kim TW. Strain effects in CdTe/Si heterostructures. J App Phys 1997;82: 6012-6015.
[3]
Rohatgi A, Ringel SA, Meyers PV, Liu CH, Rananathan V. Investigation of polycrystalline CdZnTe, CdMnTe and CdTe films for photovoltaic applications. Sol Cells 1989;27:219-231.
[4]
Ison VV, Ranga Rao A, Dutta V. Characterization of spray deposited CdTe films grown under different ambient conditions. Solid State Sci 2009;11:2003-2007.
[5]
Deivanayaki S, Jayamurugan P, Marriapan R, Ponnuswamy V. Optical and structural characterization of CdTe thin films by chemical bath deposition technique. Chalcogenide Lett 2010;7:159-163.
[6]
Panicker MPR, Knaster M, Kroger SA. Cathodic deposition of CdTe from aqueous electrolytes. J Electrochem Soc 1978;125:566-572.
[7]
White HS, Ricco AJ, Wrighton MS. Characterization of p-type CdTe electrodes in acetonitrile electrolyte solutions. J Phys Chem 1983;87:5140-5150.
[8]
Ham D, Mishra KK, Wiess A, Rajeshwar K. Anodic electrosynthesis of CdTe thin films. Chem Mater.\ 1989;1:6:619-625.
[9]
Saraby-Reintjes A, Peter LM, Ozsan ME, Dennison S, Webster S. On the mechanism of the cathodic electrodeposition of cadmium telluride. J Electrochem Soc 1993;140:2880-2888.
[10]
Soliman M, Kashyout AB, Shabana M, Elgamal M. Preparation and characterization of thin films of electrodeposited CdTe semiconductors. Renew Energ 2001;23:471-481.
[11]
Osipovich NP, Poznyak SK. Underpotential deposition of cadmium adatoms on Te and CdTe. Electrochim Acta 2006;52:996-1002.
[12]
Datta J, Jana A, Bhattacharya C, Bandyopadhyay S. Controlled growth of CdTe films by periodic voltammetry for solar cells applications. Electrochim Acta 2009;54:5470-5478.
[13]
Pathan HM, Kale SS, Lokhande CD, Han S-H, Joo O-S. Preparation and characterization of amorphous manganese sulfide thin films by SILAR method. Mater Res Bull 2007;42:1565-1569.
[14]
Shinde NM, Dubal DP,. Dhawale DS, Lokhande CD,. Kim JH, Moon JH. Room temperature novel chemical synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) adsorbing layer for photovoltaic application. Mater Res Bull 2012;47:302-307.
[15]
Muffler H-J, Fischer Ch-H, Diesner K, Lux-Steiner MC. ILGAR - a novel thin-film technology for sulfides. Sol Ener Mat Sol C 2001;67:121-127.
[16]
Anderson MA, Gorer S, Penner RM. A hybrid electrochemical/chemical synthesis of suported, luminescent cadmium sulfide nanocrystals. J Phys Chem B 1997;101:5895-5899.
[17]
Gorer S, Hsiao GS, Anderson MG, Stiger RM, Lee J, Penner RM. A hybrid electrochemical/chemical synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals on graphite: a new role for electrodeposition in materials synthesis. Electrochim Acta 1998;43:2799-2809.
[18]
Penner RM. Hybrid electrochemical/chemical synthesis of quantum dots. Acc Chem Res 2000;33:78-86.
[19]
Lokhande CD, Lee E-H, Jung K-D, Joo O-S. A simple two-step method for preparation of cadmium selenide film on nickel substrate. Mater Chem Phys 2005;93:399-403.
[20]
Ristič M, Popovič S, Musič S. Formation and properties of Cd(OH)2 and CdO particles. Mater Lett 2004;58;2494-2499.
[21]
Singh RR, Painuly D, Pandey RK. Synthesis and characterization of electrochemically deposited nanocrystalline CdTe thin films. Mater Chem Phys 209;116:261-268.
[22]
Rastogi AC, Sharma RK. Properties and mechanism of solar absorber CdTe thin film synthesis by unipolar galvanic pulsed electrodeposition. J Appl Electrochem 2009;39:167-176.
[23]
Chaure NB, Samantilleke AP, Dharmadasa IM. The effects of inclusion of iodine in CdTe thin films on material properties and solar cells performance. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 2003;77:303-317.
[24]
[24] Wang YW, Liang CH, Wang GZ, Gao T, Wang SX, Fan JC, Zhang LD. Preparation and characterization of ordered semiconductor CdO nanowire arrays. J Mater Sci Lett 2001;20:1687-1689.
[25]
Ghoshal T, Kar S, De SK. Morphology controlled solvethermal synthesis of Cd(OH)2 and CdO micro/nanocrystals on Cd foil. Appl Surf Sci 2009;255:8091-8097.
[26]
Campos CEM, Ersching K, de Lima JC, Grandi TA, Hohn H, Pizani PS. Influence of minor oxidation of the precursor powders to form nanocrystalline CdTe by mechanical alloying. J Alloys Comp 2008;466:80-86.
[27]
Promnopas Thongtem WT, Thongtem S. Characterization of nanostructured CdTe synthesized by solid state microwave-plasma process. Chalcogenide Lett 2011;8:1:1-7.
[28]
Ashrafi A, Ostrikov K. Raman-active wurtzite CdO nanophase and phonon signatures in CdO/ZnO heterostructures fabricated by nonequilibrium laser plasma ablation and stress control. Appl Phys Lett 2011;98:133119-3.
[29]
Caballero-Briones F, Zapata-Navarro A, Martel A, Iribarren A, Pena JL, Castro-Rodriguez R, Bartolo-Perez P, Rabago-Bernal F, Jimenez-Sandoval S. Compositional mixture in R.F. sputtered CdTe oxide films. Raman spectroscopy results. Superficies y Vacio 2003;16:38-42.
[30]
Zhang H, Yang B. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the surface composition of highly luminescent CdTe nanoparticles in multilayer films. Thin Solid Films 2002;418:169-174.
[31]
Pei J-H, Lin CM, Chuu DS. Characterization of CdTe film grown on a Si(111) substrate. Chin J Phys 1998;36 :44-52.
[32]
Bartolo-Perez P, Castro-Rodriguez R, Caballero-Briones F, Cauich W, Pena JL, Farias MH. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of CdTe oxide films grown by rf sputtering with an Ar-NH3 plasma. Surf Coat Tech 2002;155:16-20.
[33]
Sisman L, Demir U. Electrochemical growth and characterization of size-quantized CdTe thin films grown by underpotential deposition. J Electroanal Chem 2011;651:222-227.
[34]
Kokate AW, Asabe MR, Hankare PP, Chougule BK. Effect of annealing on properties of electrochemically deposited CdTe thin film. J Phys Chem of Solids 2007;68:53-58.
[35]
Soliman M, Kashyout AB, Shabana M, Engamal M. Preparation and characterization of thin films of electrodeposited CdTe semiconductors. Renew Energ 2001;23: 471-481.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved