Phytochemical Composition and Antidiabetic Properties of Aqueous Stem Extract of Pennisetum purpureum on Alloxan – Induced Diabetic Wistar-Albino Rats
Phytochemical composition and antidiabetic properties of aqueous stem extract of Pennisetum purpureum on alloxan –induced diabetic wistar-albino rats was assessed. Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the plant using gas chromatophrapy. While the anti-diabetic study was carried out on twenty eight (28) wistar albino rats administered with the aqueous stem extract for 21 days, after which blood samples were collected and subjected to biochemical parameters viz blood glucose, lipid profile, liver enzymes test and haematological parameters. The rats were divided into seven groups of four rats each designated as C, D, A200mg/kg, D200mg/kg, D400mg/kg, D600mg/kg and Dmet®. Diabetes was induced in all the groups, except group C (positive control) and A200mg/kg (sample control). Group D (negative control) was not treated while the other groups were treated with aqueous stem extract of Pennisetum purpureum and a reference drug (metformin® 1.4mg/kg), which was administered orally to the animals once per day for 21 days at varying concentrations of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weights. The blood glucose levels were examined for 7, 14 and 21 days. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols. The flavonoid content revealed the presence of anthocyanin (0.06%), kampferol (0.09%), rutin (2.10%), catechin (2.49%) tannins (67.89%), lunamarine (26.21%) an alkaloid, and phenol (1.16%). The aqueous stem extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in the blood glucose concentration of the albino rats at 400mg/kg of the aqueous stem extract of the plant. The aqueous stem extract also compared favourably with the standard reference drug (metformin®). There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein and white blood cell levels while high density lipoprotein level, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein level have no significant difference (p>0.05). It can be concluded that aqueous stem extract of Pennisetum purpureum might possibly be used for treating diabetes and its related complications (hyperlipidemia).
Akter F., Rahman M. M., Mahbub M. and Emdadul H. C. (2014). Anti-diabetic Effect of Neem and Spirulina in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice. International journal of Current research and AccademicReview. 2(4): 124-134. ISSN: 2347-3215.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. Washington D. C., USA.
Asanga E. E., Ebong E. P. and Eseyin, A. O. (2013). Hematological Parameters Of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated With Ethanol Extracts And Fractions Of Nauclea Lafiloia Leaf. European Scientific Journal. vol. 9, No.27 pp 203-210. ISSN: 1857 – 7881.
Bimlesh K., Harleen K. S., Sunil P., Prashant T., Manoj S. and Pardeep S. (2011). A Review of Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Flavonoids. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia. 1(1). 25-41.
Cheesbrough M. (2005). Blood cell production. Distinct laboratory practice in tropical countries 2nd ed. Cambridge University United Kingdom.
Dilip G. and Tetsuya K. (2007). Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts: role in diabetes and eye function. Asia Pacific Journal on Clinical Nutrition; 16 (2): 200-208.
Dilipkumar P. and Preeti V. (2013). Flavonoids: A Powerful And Abundant Source Of Antioxidants. International Journal 0f Pharmacy And Pharmaceutical Sciences .Vol 5, Issue 3, ISSN- 0975-1491.
Dineshkumar B., Mitra A. and Manjunatha M. (2009). In vitro and in vivo studies of antidiabetic Indian medicinal plants: A review. Journal of herbal medicine and toxicology. 3. 9-14.
Edet, E.E., Akpanabiatu, M. I., Uboh F. E., Edet T. E., Eno A. E., Itam E. H. and Umoh. I. B. (2011). Gongronema latifolium crude leaf extract reverses alterations in hematological indices and weight loss in diabetic rats. Journal of pharmacology and Toxicology, 6: 174-181.
Elekofehinti O. O, Adanlawo I. G and Fakoya A. (2012). Solanumanguivi saponins inhibit basal erythropoiesis in Rattusnovergicus. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences www.ajphs.com Vol-2 | Issue-3.
Emily L. (2005) Diabetes Mellitis: Type 1 and Type 2. Guidelines For Adolescent Nutrition Services Stang J, Story M (eds) Chapter 14 pg 167-182.
Friedewald W. T., Levy R. I., Friedrickson D. S. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of low- density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry. 18:499-502.
Hayes K.C, Khoisa P. and Pronezuk A. (1991). Diet-induced type IV-like hyperlipidemia And Increased Body weight. Lipids. 26(9):729-735.
Ikewuchi C. C. (2012a). Hypocholesterolemic Effect Of An Aqueous Extract Of The Leaves Of Sansevieria Senegambica Baker On Plasma Lipid Profile And Atherogenic Indices Of Rats Fed Egg Yolk Supplemented Diet. Experimental and Clinical Sciences International online Journal. 11:318-327 – ISSN 1611-2156.
Ikewuchi J. C. (2012b) Alteration Of Plasma Biochemical, Haematological And Ocular Oxidative Indices Of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats By Aqueous Extract Of Tridax Procumbens Linn (Asteraceae). Experimental and Clinical Sciences International online Journal. 11:291-308 – ISSN 1611-2156.
Jack D. (2003) Overview of the Antidiabetic Agents. Endocrine Pharmacotherapy Module pg 1-33.
Kumari M. and Jain S. (2012). Tannins: An Antinutrient with Positive Effect to Manage Diabetes. Research Journal of Recent Sciences. Vol. 1(12), 70-73, ISSN 2277-2502.
Lee K. T, Shon I. C, Kim D. H, Choi J. W, Kwon S. H and Park H. J. (2000). Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of tectorigenin and kaikasaponin III in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and their antioxidant activity in-vitro. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 23:461–6.
Macabeo A. P. G. and Aguinaldo M. A (2008). Chemical and Phytomedicinal Investigations in Lunasiaamara. Pharmacognosy Reviews. Vol 2, Issue 4, Page 317-325.
Malloy M. J. and Kane P. J. (2010). Agents Used in Dyslipidemia. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. In Betram G. K., Masters S. B. and Trevor A. J. 12th Ed. Chapter 35. Pg. 619-633.
Maqsood A., Zaman F. , Sharif T. and Zabta M. (2008). Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Methanolic Extract of Acacia Nilotica Pods in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science Vol. 35 No. 1 pg 29-34.
Maria-Luisa L. and Cristina F. (2013). Oxidative stress in diabtes mellitus and the role of vitamins with antioxidant actions. Agricultural and Biological Sciences. Chapter 9. 209-232.
Munazza A., Aslam M. Munir T. A. and Nadeem A. (2011). Effect Of Acacianilotica Leaves Extract On Hyperglycaemia, Lipid Profile And Platelet Aggregation In Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 23(2) pp 3-5.
Okaraonye C.C and Ikewuchi J. C. (2009). Nutritional and Antinutritional Components of Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (1): 32-34 ISSN 1680-5194.
Pandey, J. P., Tiwari, A., Mishra, G., and Mishra, R. M. (2011). Role of Spirulina maxima in the Control of Blood Glucose Levels and Body Weight in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Male Wistar rats. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization. 32 (4): 35 37.
Sada N. M., Tanko Y and Mabrouk M. A. (2013). Effect of soya beans supplement on blood glucose levels and haematological indices on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats. Annals of Biological Research, 4 (2): 208-213.
Sheriff, D. S. (2004). Cholesterol metabolism. Medical Biochemistry 1st Ed. Chapter 25. pg. 192-198.
Varley H., Gowenlook A. H. and Bell M. (1980). Practical Clinical Biochemistry. London: Heinemann Medical Books (I). pp. 1078-1092.
Tripathi V. andVerma J. (2014). Different Models Used To Induce Diabetes: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol 6, Issue 6, 2014 pg 1-4 ISSN- 0975-1491.
Vijayanand N., Sivasangari R. S., And Rathinave S. (2014). Antidiabetic Activity Of Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. Extracts In Alloxan - Induced Rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science.Vol 6, Issue 4, 348-352.
Yerima N.I, Anaka J. A., Salamu O.A and Abdu Aguye. (2013). Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem bark extract of Tamarindusindica L. on Experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic wistar albino rats. Parkistan Journal of biology. 17: 414-418.