Hydrogeological Evaluations of Shallow Alluvial Aquifers of the Catchment Flood Plains of River Gbako around Baddegi Central Bida Basin, Nigeria
Field hydrogeological mapping of the catchment floodplains of river Gbako was carried out. The results shows average water level in wells is 6.1 m below ground surface, average wells depth is 8.8 m and average water column in the wells is 2.7 m. The shallow Alluvial Aquifers in this catchment area are been exploited for groundwater and they are mainly recharged by precipitation and Rivers Gbako and Mussa. Groundwater flow in the area is along two divides, the most important is in the middle parts which has higher hydraulic head and indicates a discharge zone. Groundwater also flows from the middle area to western and eastern part of the catchment. Hydraulic conductivity of the sediments estimated from grain size distribution after mechanical sieves using empirical formula (K = C (d10)2) shows average permeability of 4.3m/day. Field geological mapping of the catchment show the alluvial sediments of River Gbako flood plains around Baddegi. The alluvial sediments extend up to 3km2 from both sides of the Gbako River bank which signifies the active flood plains in the area. Textural characteristics of the sediments sampled from four pits dug in the catchment shows medium grained brownish to yellowish colour with iron concretions in some of the exposed strata.
Groundwater, Sieve Analysis, Porosity, Permeability, Floodplains
Burmister, D. M. (1954) Principles of permeability testing of soils, in Symposium on Permeability of Soils, ASTM Special Technical Publication, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
Carman, P. C. (1937) Fluid flow through granular beds, Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, 15, 150–166.
Carman, P. C. (1939) Permeability of saturated sands, soils and clays. Journal of Agricultural Science, 29, 263–273.
Charles, R. F. (2002). Groundwater Science New York, Academia Press.
Du Preez, J. W., & Barber, W. (1964). The Distribution and Chemical Quality of Groundwater in Northern Nigeria G. S. N. Bulletin No. 36.
Hamill, L., & Bell, F. G. (1986). Groundwater Resources Development United Kingdom, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
Hazen, A. (1911). Discussion: Dams on sand foundations: Transaction. American Society of Civil Engineers, 73, 199.
Lambe, T. W. (1954). The permeability of compacted fine-grained soils, in Symposium on Permeability of Soils, ASTM Special Technical Publication, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
Martin, O. E., Olusola, O. T., & Isaac, O. O. (2012). Evaluation of Groundwater Resources of the Middle Niger Basin of Nigeria American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2 (6), 166-173.
Mitchell, J. K., Hopper, D. R and Campanella R. C. (1965). Permeability of compacted clay, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, 91, 41–65.
Obaje, N. G. (2009). The Mid-Niger (Bida) Basin. In Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria, (pp. 91-101). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Olaniyan, I. O., & Oyeyemi, S. M. (2008). Geophysical Exploration for Groundwater Potential at Hayin Danmani Area of Kaduna, Nigeria, Global Journal of Engineering and Technology, 1 (4), 413-418.
Olson, R. E. (1963). Effective stress theory of soil compaction, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, 89, 27–45.
Polservice (1979). A Pre-drilling Hydrogeological Investigation Report, Area XVII: A Study Sponsored by Federal Ministry of Water Resources, Nigeria.
Shekwolo, P. D (1990). Development and Maintenance of Groundwater Resources Bida-Basin Case Study. A Paper Presented at International Seminar on Hydrology, Maiduguri.
Sidi A. A, Waziri N. M, Maji A. T, Okunlola I. A, Umar A. & Waziri S. H (2016). Assessment of Chemical Quality of Water from Shallow Alluvial Aquifers in and around Badeggi, Central Bida Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 6 (3), 133-145.
Yulianti, M. (2018), Preliminary study of soil permeability properties using principal component analysis, Earth Environ. Sci. 118, 012029.