Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News Unsubscribe Page
Holistic Ecological Assessment of Dendrochronological Series as Source of Information for Tree Eustress (Example with Beech)
Current Issue
Volume 1, 2014
Issue 1 (April)
Pages: 24-34   |   Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2014   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 14   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1018   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Mariyana Lyubenova , Faculty of Biology, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 8 DraganTzankov Bld., Sofia, Bulgaria.
Alexandre Chikalanov , University of Library Knowledge and Informatics, Blvd. Sofia, Bulgaria.
Velichka Lyubenova , Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Bld., Sofia, Bulgaria.
Main goal of the paper is to present a new concept for stress in trees – eustress, which the authors define as a set of years with low stem growth, caused by unfavorable ecological impacts. The developed methodology for identification and assessment of eustress (SPPAM application) is demonstrated by analysis of 325 beech chronologies from 10 locations in Europe for the period 1904 - 2007. Three groups of locations are distinguished on the base of average tree ring width of the model sequences. In order to find eustress years the tree ring width sequences are approximated with polynomials of mainly 7th degree and R2 in the range 0.55 - 0.89. Then the index (It) is computed for every year as a ratio between measured and approximated value. Years where It is lower than a threshold value, the authors categorize as stress ones. The obtained inverse correlation between It and altitude is described by a linear regression and a power function. An inverse linear regression between It and the negative deviation of precipitation from the climate norms (dP) also exists for 60% of the studied locations. The specified in the study climatic and biological climatic year for a certain location and year, show significant differences that best occur in small and large altitudes. Common to 50% of the studied locations are 25 years: 1910-1914, 1918-1921, 1928-1929, 1946-1949 etc. The predominance of warm and dry years in total number of adverse years is established, except for the locations at high altitude. The eustress effect of wet and cold years on beech trees is significant, especially for the locations at high altitude. A four grade scale for assessment of frequency, duration and negative deviation of eustress periods is proposed. Five groups of locations are formed due to the comparative analysis of these characteristics. Tree of them have a potential to buffer the negative influences, while two of them need further investigations on the eustress etymology. If the sampled trees from a certain location have stress periods, which are long, frequently appearing and with large reduction in the growth, the probability of degradation, successive changes in species composition or the reduction of occupied area of forest community, exists. The capability of the approach allows manifestation of reactive functional types of trees (PFTs), which may support the vegetation modelling. The groups of trees with similar behavior, connected to the climatic types of years, and with similar characteristics of eustress periods, could be recognized and treated as a kind of PFTs.
Dendrochronology, Eustress, Climatic Type of Year, Reactive Functional Type of Tree, SPPAM Program, Fagus silvatica L.
Alexandrov, V. M., 2010. Climate changes. Scientific Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, p. 48. (in Bulgarian)
Bigler, C., Braker, O., Bugmann, H., Dobbertin, M., Rigling, A., 2006. Drought as an Inciting Mortality Factor in Scots Pine Stands of the Valais, Switzerland. Ecosystems, Vol. 9, Issue 3, 330-343.
Cook, E. R., 1990. Applications in the Environmental Sciences, in: Cook E. R., Kairiukstis, L. A. (Eds.). Methods of Dendrochronology. Applications in the Environmental Sciences. Kluwer Academic Publishers and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Dordrecht, 394 pp.
Dendrochronological database –p=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/treering.html
Frits, H. C., 2001. Tree Rings and Climate. Caldwell, New Jersey: Blackburn Press, 567 pp.
Larcher, W., 2003. Physiological Plant Ecology: Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of Functional Groups. Springer, 450.
Lavorel, S., Garnier, E., 2002. Predicting the effects of environmental changes of plant community and ecosystem functioning: revisiting the Holy Grail. Functional Ecology 16, 545-556.
Levitt, J., 1980. Responses of plants to environmental stresses. Volume II. Water, radiation, salt, and other stresses. Academic Press, p. 697.
Lyubenova, М. L., 2012. Plant functional types of tress (PFTs) according to peculiarities of periods with reduced stem growth (eustress periods). Publishing house PublishSySet - Eco, Sofia, 276. (in Bulgarian)
Lyubenova, M. I., Chikalanov, A. I., 2010. Software implementation for eustress period studies applied to dendrochronological analyses of g. Quercus L. Comptesrendus de l’Academiebulgare des Sciences, vol. 63, 3, 409-418.
Lyubenova, M., Chikalanov, A., Stoyanov, S., 2012. Functional Types of Trees (PFTs) as Traits of Low Stem Growth Periods (Eustress Periods), In: Abstract Book “Modelling the terrestrial biosphere: From Ecological Processes to Remote Sensing Observations”, 2nd TERRABITES Symposium ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, Italy 6-8 February, 28 p.
Lyubenova, М. L., 2004. Plant Ecology. Academic Publisher “M. Drinov”, Sofia, 574. (in Bulgarian)
Malaisse, F., Burgeon, D., 1993. Le deperissement des Chenes indigenes en Europe Occidentale, Note 1, Symptomes de perte de vitalite. Belg. J. Bot. 126, 2, 191-205.
Mirchev, S., Lyubenova, M., Chikalanov, A., Simeonova, N., 2000. Dendrochronology. Pensoft, Sofia - Moscow, 198.(in Bulgarian)
Van Bodegom, P., Douma, B., Ordonez, J., Bartholomeus, R., Verheijen, L. & Witte, F., 2010. A trait-based approach to represent vegetation in DGVMs. COST ES0805 Workshop “Going beyond Plant Functional Types: Next-Generation Concepts in Plant Ecological Modelling”, Bulgaria, Varna, 23-25, 06. 2010.
Schweingruber, F. H., 1996. Tree Rings and Environment. Dendroecology. Paul HauptVerlag, Berne, 609.
Sokal, R. R., Rohlf, F. J., 1997. Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. W. H. Freeman and Company Publisher, New York, 3rd edition, 887.
SPPAM, version 1.2http://www.e-ecology.org/
Weber, P., Bugmann, H., Rigling, A., 2005. Differences in drought response of Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd in the Swiss Rhône valley. In: H. Gärtner, J. Esper, G. H. Schleser (eds). TRACE. Vol. 3, Proceedings of the Dendro symposium, 2004, Birmensdorf, Switzerland, 48-52.
Weisberg, S., 2005. Applied Linear Regression. John Wiley & Sons, Second Edition, 352.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved