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Groundwater Resources Appraisal in the Tropical Coral Island of Kalpeni, U T of Lakshadweep, India
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Volume 4, 2017
Issue 5 (October)
Pages: 52-63   |   Vol. 4, No. 5, October 2017   |   Follow on         
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Joji V. S., Central Ground Water Board, Kerala Region, Kesavadaspuram, PIN, Kerala, India.
Groundwater resources appraisal in the Tropical Coral Island of Kalpeni, U T of Lakshadweep, India has been carried out by studying general hydrogeological conditions, hydrochemistry, evolution of ground water and the management of ground water resources. In the Island of Kalpeni ground water occurs under phreatic condition and is a thin lens floating over the saline water and coral sands and coral limestone form the principal aquifers. As the fresh water floats over saline water, it has got hydraulic continuity with sea water. Ground water is developed by open dug wells and to a limited extent through shallow filter point wells and the depth to the water level (DTW) in the Island varies 1.31 to about 2.9 mbgl and the depth of the wells varies from 1.9 to 3.5mbgl. The DTW is highly influenced by the tides. The base map of Kalpeni and various layers were prepared by using Map Info 6.5 techniques and in the ground water resource of Kalpeni has been computed based on the methodology recommended by the GEC 1997. The pre- and post-monsoon ground water samples collected from shallow aquifers (dug wells) in polyethylene bottles and analyzed for pH, EC, F-, Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+ as per standard procedures (APHA, 1995) and the in-situ measurement of electrical conductivity and pH carried out by using EC and pH meters. The ground water in the Island is generally alkaline and EC varies from 380 to 1204 micromhos /cm at 25°C. The ground water is generally alkaline and under Na+- SO42- type and shallow meteoric percolation type. The factors affecting the quality are rainfall, tides, ground water recharge and draft, human and animal wastes, oil spills and fertilizers. The Pre- monsoon groundwater samples of different areas of Ca-Mg-Cl Type and post monsoon Ca-HCO3 Type and recharge has played major role in the evolution of ground water. The hydrochemistry is mainly controlled by evaporation, partly influenced by water–rock interaction and aquifer material.
Phreatic, Ghyben-Hertzberg Relation, Chadha’s Diagram, Hydrograph, Hydrochemical Evolution
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