Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Skin Depigmentation Profiles of Ethanolic Fraction of the South African “Green” Cyclopia intermedia and Other Related Biological Potentials
Current Issue
Volume 7, 2019
Issue 5 (October)
Pages: 65-71   |   Vol. 7, No. 5, October 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 37   Since Dec. 11, 2019 Views: 1193   Since Dec. 11, 2019
Olugbenga Kayode Popoola, Department of Chemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
Background: The process of aging in human is complex with underlying multiple influences including the probable involvement of free radicals and varying degree of environmental factors. Over accumulation of such free radicals and other related factors resulted into cellular oxidative damage to important macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and deoxyribonucleic acid eventually leading to many chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, premature skin aging, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Cyclopia intermedia (honeybush) is notable in South Africa and globally for medicinal (including alleviate heartburn and nausea, stimulate milk-production in breast-feeding women and treat colic in babies) and economic importance such as in worldwide production of tea and beverages. This study is therefore directed towards searching for biological values of honeybush in the area of possible combating with cellular oxidative stress and alleviating early skin aging. Method: An ethanolic extract of the South African fynbos species Cyclopia intermedia was successively fractionated in an open column of silica using a gradient of hexane: ethyl acetate. Phytochemical constituents of the most bioactive column fraction (VIII) was profiled using chromatographic and LC-ESI-MS methods with notable phenolics as well as unidentified analogues thereof. Result: The biological profile of fraction VIII assessed using colorimetric assays gave potent anti-tyrosinase activity IC50 28.125 µg/mL, while the in vitro total antioxidant capacities showed VIII with ORAC (3218.72 ± 90.14 µmol TE/g); TEAC (9903.21 ± 161.73 µmol TE/g); FRAP (6146.38 ± 5.72 µmol AAE/g) and iron (II)-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation estimated as IC50 260.173 µg/mL. Conclusion: The outcome of this investigation suggested more unexplored phenolics are still in existence in C. intermedia with possible correlation between the anti-tyrosinase of fraction VIII to the total antioxidant capacities demonstrated.
Cyclopia intermedia, Chromatography, Tyrosinase, Phenolics, Antioxidant
Chompo J., Upadhyay A., Fukuta M., Tawata S. (2012). Effect of Alpinia zerumbet component on antioxidant and skin disease-related enzymes. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 12: 106-113.
de Beer D., Joubert E. (2010). Development of HPLC method for Cyclopia subternata phenolic compound analysis and application to other Cyclopia spp.. Food Composition & Analysis. 23: 289-297.
Huang X. H., Chen Q. X., Wang Q., Song K. K., Wang J., Sha L., Guan X. (2006). Inhibition of the activity of mushroom tyrosinase by alkylbenzoic acids. Food Chemistry. 9 (1): 1-6.
Curto E. V., Kwong C., Hermersdorfer H., Glatt H., Santis C., Virador V., Hearing V. J., Dooley T. P. (1999). Inhibitors of mammalian melanocyte tyrosinase: in vitro comparisons of alkyl esters of gentisic acid with other putative inhibitors. Biochemical Pharmacology. 57: 663–672.
Momtaz S., Mapunya B. M., Houghton P. J., Edgerly C., Hussein A., Naidoo S., Lall N. (2008). Tyrosinase inhibition by extracts and constituents of Sideroxylon inerme L. stem bark, used in South Africa for skin lightening. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 119: 507-512.
Saewan N., Koysomboon S., Chantrapromma K. (2011). Anti-tyrosinase and anti-cancer activities of flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera DC. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 5 (6): 1018-1025.
Parvez S., Kang M., Chung H. S., Cho C., Hong M. C., Shin M. K., Bae H. (2006). Survey and mechanism of skin depigmenting and lightening agents. Phytotherapy Research. 20: 921-934.
Kim M., Shin S., Lee J. A., Park D., Lee J., Jung E. (2015). Inhibition of melanogenesis by Gaillardia aristata flower extract. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 15: 449.
Wang Y., Zhao C-M., Guo T., Zhu Y-L., Zhao P. (2015). Preliminary screening of 44 plant extracts for anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Scince. 28 (5): 1737-1744.
Fuyuno I. (2004). Spotlight turns on cosmetics for Asian skin. Nature. 432: 938-1038.
Hermanns J., Pierard-Franchimont C., Pierard G. (2000). Skin colour assessment in safety testing of cosmetics. An overview. International Journal of Cosmetology. 22: 67-71.
Joubert E., Richards E. S., Van der Merwe J. D., De Beer D., Manley M., Gelderblom W. C. A. (2008). Effect of species variation and processing on phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of Cyclopia spp. (Honeybush Tea). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 56: 954-963.
Kamara B., Brandt E., Ferreira D., Joubert E. (2003). Polyphenols from honeybush tea (Cyclopia intermedia). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51: 3874-3879.
Marnewick J. L., Joubert E., Joseph S., Swanevelder S., Swart P., Gelderblom W. C. A. (2005). Inhibition of tumour promotion in mouse skin by extracts of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia), unique South African herbal teas. Cancer Letter. 224: 193-202.
Sissing L., Marnewick J. L., de Kock M., Swanevelder S., Joubert E., Gelderblom W. C. A. (2011). Modulating Effects of Rooibos and Honeybush Herbal Teas on the Development of Esophageal Papillomas in Rats. Nutrition & Cancer. 63 (4): 600-610.
Mckay D., Blumberg J. (2007). A Review of the Bioactivity of South African Herbal Teas: Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and Honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia). Phytotherapy Research. 21: 1-16.
Snijman P. W., Joubert E., Ferreira D., Li X., Ding Y., Green I. R., Gelderblom W. C. A. (2009). Antioxidant activity of the dihydrochalcones aspalathin and nothofagin and their corresponding flavones in relation to other rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) flavonoids, epigallocatechin gallate, and trolox. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 57: 6678-6684.
Nguyen H. X., Nguyen N. T., Nguyen M. H. K., Le T. H., Van Do T. N., Hung T. M., Nguyen M. T. T. (2016). Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllous. Chemistry Central Journal. 10: 150-157.
Huang X. H., Chen Q. X., Wang Q., Song K. K., Wang J., Sha L., Guan X. (2006). Inhibition of the activity of mushroom tyrosinase by alkylbenzoic acids. Food Chemistry. 9 (1): 1-6.
Singleton V. L., Orthofer R., Lamuela-Raventós R. M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology. 299: 152-178.
Treutter D. (1989). Chemical reaction detection of catechins and proanthocyanidins with 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde. Journal of Chromatography A. 467: 185-193.
Delcour J. A., de Varebeke J. D. (1985). A new colorimetric assay for flavonoids in pilsner beers. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 91: 37-40.
Pellegrini N., Re R., Yang M., Rice-Evans C. A. (1999). Screening of dietary carotenoids and carotenoid-rich fruit extracts for antioxidant activities applying the 2,2’-azobis (3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical cation decolorisation assay. Methods in Enzymology. 299: 379-389.
Benzie, I. F. F., Strain, J. J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry. 239: 70-76.
Ou B., Hampsch-Woodill M., Prior R. L. (2001). Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 49: 4619-4626.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved