Natural Bentonite Clay and Its Composites for Dye Removal: Current State and Future Potential
Dye bearing effluent have become one of the most dangerous environmental complications, and the removal of synthetic dyes (e.g., acid dyes, azoic (or naphthol) dyes, basic dyes, chrome (or mordant) dyes, developed (or diazo) dyes, direct dyes, disperse (or acetate) dyes, reactive (or fiber-reactive) dyes, sulphur dyes, Vat dyes) from water and wastewater is of unique concern because they are unmanageable and sustained in the environment. As of late, bentonites and its composite have been moderately applied to the removal of dye bearing effluent from contaminated water through adsorption processes. This paper reviews recent progress in the application of bentonites and its composites for the removal of synthetic dyes from contaminated water. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of the performance of adsorption process in removing synthetic dyes from water and wastewater by using bentonites and its composites. This study assesses the removal data compare from recent research relating to various dyes during the adsorption process. The paper discusses removal efficiencies, thermodynamics and reaction kinetics. Bentonites are anticipated to have significant potential for comprehensive application to wastewater treatment in the near future. Various challenges encountered in using bentonites and its composite are highlighted and a number of future prospects for the bentonites based adsorbents are proposed.
Nanotechnology, Bentonite Based Composite, Water Pollution, Adsorption, Organic Contaminants, Dyes, Pesticides, Isotherms, Kinetics, Thermodynamics
Aksu Z. Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review. Process Biochem 2005; 40:997–1026.
Abd El-Latif MM, El-Kady MF, Ibrahim AM, Ossman ME. Alginate/polyvinyl alcohol-kaolin composite for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution in a batch stirred tank reactor. J Am Sci 2010; 6: 280–292.
Pandey S, Mishra SB. Microwave synthesized xanthan gum-g-poly (ethylacrylate): An efficient Pb2+ ion binder. Carbohydrate Polymer. 2012; 90 (1): 370-379, 2012.
Pandey S, Mishra SB. Graft copolymerization of Ethylacrylate onto Xanthan Gum, Using Potassium Peroxydisulphate as an Initiator. International Journal of Biological macromolecules. 2011; 49 (4): 527–535.
Pandey S, Mishra SB. Sol–gel derived organic–inorganic hybrid materials: synthesis, characterizations and applications, Sol-gel Science and Technology 2011; 59 (1): 73-94.
Singh V, Singh SK. Pandey S, Kumar P. Sol–gel synthesis and characterization of adsorbent and photoluminescent nanocomposites of starch and silica. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 2011; 357: 194–201.
Singh V, Pandey S, Singh SK, Sanghi R. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions by adsorption poly (acrylamide) modified guar gum-silica nanocomposites. Separation and purification technology 2009; 67: 251-261.
Singh V, Kumari P, Pandey S, Narayan T. Removal of Chromium (VI) using poly (methylacrylate) functionalized guar gum . Bio resource Technology 2009; 100(6): 1977-1982.
Singh V, Pandey S, Singh SK, Sanghi R. Sol-gel polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane in ethanol in presence of vinyl modified guar gum: synthesis of novel adsorbent materials, Sol-gel Science and Technology 2008; 47(1): 58-67.
Singh V, Pandey S, Singh SK, Sanghi R. Synthesis of Novel Nanocomposites of Silica and Guar Gum: Efficient Zinc Ion Binder, Journal of Fudan University (Natural Science), 2007; 46(5): 155.
Singh V, Tiwari A, Pandey S, Singh SK, Sanghi R. Synthesis and characterization of novel saponified guar graft-polyacrylonitrile/silica nanocomposite materials, Journal of Applied polymer science 2007; 104(1): 536-544.
Pandey S, Goswami GK, Nanda KK. Nanocomposite based flexible ultrasensitive resistive gas sensor for chemical reactions studies. Scientific Reports 2013: (3): 2082. doi: 10.1038/srep02082
Pandey S, Goswami GK, Nanda KK. Green synthesis of polysaccharide/gold nanoparticle nanocomposite: An efficient ammonia sensor. Carbohydr. Polym. 2013: 94: 229-234.
Pandey S, Mishra SB. Chromatographic resolution of racemic α-amino acids: Chiral stationary phase derived from modified xanthan gum. Carbohydr. Polym. 2013: 92: 2201–2205. Pubmed.
Pandey S, Goswami GK, Nanda KK. Green Synthesis of Biopolymer-Silver nanoparticle Nanocomposite: An optical Sensor for Ammonia Detection. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012: 51: 583-589.
Pandey S, Mishra SB. Microwave synthesized xanthan gum-g-poly (ethylacrylate): An efficient Pb2+ ion binder. Carbohydr. Polym. 2012: 90(1): 370-379.
Singh V, Tiwari A, Pandey S, Singh SK. Peroxydisulfate initiated synthesis of potato starch-graft- poly (acrylonitrile) under microwave irradiation, xPress polymer letters 2007, 3007: 1(1): 51-58.
Singh V, Tiwari A. Pandey S, Singh SK. Microwave accelerated synthesis and characterization of potato starch-g-poly (acrylamide), Starch/Starke 2006: 58: 536-543. doi:10.1002/star.200600520
Pandey S, Mishra SB. Amorphous mixed oxides: A New and Highly Versatile Class of Materials, Intelligent nanomaterial. 149, 2012 ISBN: 978-0-470-93879-9 Scrivener-Wiley publisher. doi:10.1002/9781118311974.ch4
Pandey S, Nanda KK. One-dimensional Nanostructure Based Chemiresistive Sensor, Nantotechnology, Vol. 10: Nanosensing 2013: 10:1-16. ISBN: 1-62699-010-7, Studium Press LLC, USA.
Pandey S, Mishra SB. Bioceramics: Silica based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for medical applications, “Nanomedicine for Drug Delivery and Therapeutics”. ISBN: 9781118414095, 2013: Ch.5: 136-158. Scrivener-Wiley publisher doi: 10.1002/9781118636299.ch5
Pandey S, Mishra SB, Chemical Nanosensors for Monitoring Environmental Pollution. Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research. 309-332 (2014). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi: 10.1002/9781118939314.ch12
Singh V, Singh SK, Pandey S, Sanghi R. Synthesis and characterization of guar gum templated hybrid nano silica. Int J Biol Macromol.2011, 49, 233–240.
Pandey S, Mishra SB. Organic-inorganic hybrid of chitosan/organoclay bionanocomposites for hexavalent chromium uptake. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2011, 361, 509–520.
Pandey S, Tiwari S, Facile approach to synthesize chitosan based composite—Characterization and cadmium (II) ion adsorption studies, Carbohydrate Polymers 134, 646–656, 2015
Pandey S, Nanda KK, Au Nanocomposite Based Chemiresistive Ammonia Sensor for Health Monitoring, ACS Sensors 2016, 1, 55-62.
Pandey S, Ramontja J, Rapid, facile microwave-assisted synthesis of xanthan gum grafted polyaniline for chemical sensor, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2016, 89, 89-98.
Pandey S, Ramontja J, Turning to Nanotechnology for Water Pollution Control: Applications of Nanocomposites, Focus on Sciences, 2016, 2 (2), 1-10.
Nigam P, Banat IM, Singh D, Marchant R. Microbial process for the decolorization of textile effluent containing azo, diazo and reactive dyes. Process Biochemistry 1996; 31, (5): 435-442.
Annadurai G, Juang RS, Lee DJ. Use of cellulose-based waste for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2002; B92: 263–274.
Al-Asheh S, Banat F, Abu-Aitah L. Adsorption of phenol using different types of activated bentonites. Sep. Pur. Tech. 2003; 33: 1-10.
Kara M, Yuzer H, Sabah E, Celik MS. Adsorption of cobalt from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite. Water Res. 2003; 37: 224-232.
Yıldız N, Gönülşen R, Koyuncu H, Calımlı A. Adsorption of benzoic acid and hydroquinone by organically modified bentonite. Colloids Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2005; 260: 87-94.
Wang L, Wang A. Adsorption properties of Congo red from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified montmorillonite. Journal of Hazardous materials 2008; 160: 173-180.
Chen R, Peng F, Su S. Synthesis and characterization of novel swelling tunable oligomeric poly (styrene-co-acrylamide) modified clays. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2008; 108: 2712-2717.
Kellner R, Mermet JM, Otto M, Widmer HM. Analytical Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, New York, 1998, pp. 541-546, 691-700.
Fischer EW. Small angle x-ray scattering studies of phase transitions in polymeric and oligomeric systems. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1971; 26 (3-4): 385-422.
Mahboub R, Mouzdahir YE, Elmchaouri A, Carvalho A, Pinto M, Pires J. Characterization of a delaminated clay and pillared clays by adsorption of probe molecules. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 2006; 280: 81–87.
Steudel A, Batenburg LF, Fischer HR, Weidler PG, Emmerich K. Alteration of swelling clay minerals by acid activation. Appl. Clay Sci. 2009; 44: 105-115.
He H, Frost RL, Bostrom T, Yuan P, Duong L, Yang D, Xi Y, Kloprogge T. Changes in morphology of organoclays with HDTMA surfactant loading. Appl. Clay Sci. 2006; 31: 262-271.
Dai JC, Huang JT. Surface modification of clays and clay-rubber composite. Appl. Clay Sci. 1991; 15: 51-65.
Paiva de LB, Morales AR, Díaz FRV. Organoclays: Properties, prepration and applications. Appl. Clay Sci. 2008; 42: 8-24.
Liu P. Polymer modified clay minerals: A review. Appl. Clay Sci. 2007; 38: 64-76.
Stockmeyer MR. Adsorption of organic compounds on organophilic bentonites. Appl Clay Sci 1991; 6: 39–57.
Espantaleona AG, Nietoa JA, Fernandezb M, Marsalc A. Use of activated clays in the removal of dyes and surfactants from tannery wastewater, Appl. Clay Sci. 2003; 24:105–110.
Lin SH, Juang RS, Wang YH. Adsorption of acid dye from water onto pristine and acid-activated clays in fixed beds. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2004; B113: 195–200.
Özcan AS, Özcan A. Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solutions onto acid-activated bentonite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2004; 276: 39–46.
Teng MY, Lin SH. Removal of methyl orange dye from water onto raw and acid activated montmorillonite in fixed beds. Desalination 2006: 201: 71–81.
Li Q, Yue Q-Y, Su Y, Gao B-Y, Fu L. Cationic polyelectrolyte/bentonite prepared by ultrasonic technique and its use as adsorbent for Reactive Blue K-GL dye, Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2007; 147: 370–380.
Chun-li Z, Guang-jun R, En-jun S, Xin W. A Study on the Adsorption of Alizarin Yellow R from Aqueous Solution by TiO2 Pillared Bentonite. Dyestuffs and coloration. 2005-05.
Xiu-qiong Z. Treating dyeing wastewater of reactive red X-3B with modified montmorillonite clay. Environmental science and technology. 2000-03.
DíazGómez-Treviño AP, Martínez-Miranda V, Solache-Ríos M. Removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions by unmodified and stabilized iron modified clay, Applied Clay Science. 2013; 80–81: 219–225.
Rehman MSU, Munir M, Ashfaq M, Rashid N, Nazar MF, Danish M, Han J-I. Adsorption of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution onto red clay, Chemical Engineering Journal. 2013; 228: 54–62.
Yue Q-Y, Li Q, Gao B-Y, Wang Y. Kinetics of adsorption of disperse dyes by polyepicholorohydrin-dimethylamine cationic polymer/bentonite, Separation and Purification Technology. 2007; 54: 279–290.
Wang L, Wang A. Adsorption characteristics of Congo red onto the chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposite J. Hazard. Mater. 2007; 147: 979.
Liu P. Polymer modified clay minerals: A review. Applied Clay Science. 2007; 38: 64–76.
Li Q, Yue Q-Y, Su Y, Gao B-Y, Jing L. Two-step kinetic study on the adsorption and desorption of reactive dyes at cationic polymer/bentonite, Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2009; 165: 1170–1178.
Al E; Güçlü G, İyim TB, Emik S, Özgümüş S. Synthesis and properties of starch-graft-acrylic acid/Na-montmorillonite superabsorbent nanocomposite hydrogels. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2008; 109 (1) 16-22.
Almeida CAP, Debacher NA, Downs AJ, Cottet L, Mello CAD. Removal of methylene blue from colored effluents by adsorption on montmorillonite clay. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2009; 332: 46–53.
Li Q, Yue Q-Y, Su Y, Gao B-Y, Sun H-J. Equilibrium, thermodynamics and process design to minimize adsorbent amount for the adsorption of acid dyes onto cationic polymer-loaded bentonite, Chemical Engineering Journal. 2010; 158: 489–497.
Koswojo R, Utomo RP, Ju Y-H, Ayucitra A, Soetaredjo FE, Sunarso J, Ismadji S. Acid Green 25 removal from wastewater by organo-bentonite from Pacitan, Applied Clay Science. 2010; 48: 81–86.
Jianmin R, Yongmin Z, Siwei W, Sheguang D, Peipei G. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of methylene blue by Na-bentonite, Ion Exchange and Adsorption. 2010-02.
Yi W, Ting Z, Huixia F, Jianhui Q. Study on Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Anion Surfactant Modified Bentonites, Non-Metallic Mines. 2008-02.
Zhen-hua P, Hao-long X, Application of New Type Organobentonite for Treating of Dyeing Wastewater, Guangzhou Chemical Industry. 2010-09.
Hong S, Hong-kang X, Lei W. Study on treatment of dyeing and printing wastewater with 8-hydroxyquinoline-modified bentonite, Textile Auxiliaries. 2010-10.
Guangjun R. et al. Adsorption Behaviours of Pillared-bentonite to Dyeing Acidic Red-B, Non-metallic Mines. 2004-02.
Jinxu N, Xianmin X, Lifan L. Experimental Study of The Modified Bentonite Coagulant for Phenol-based Wastewater, Non-metallic Mines. 2005-02.
Pei W,Wen-jie W, Li-hui Z. Adsorption of Methyl Orange onto Anion-Cation Organobentonite, Technology & Development of Chemical Industry. 2007-11.
Ruilian Y. Treatment of Reactive Black Dyeing Wastewater by Carbon-entrained & Roasted Bentonite. Non-Metallic Mines. 2008-01.
Mahdavinia GR, Zhalebaghy R. Removal Kinetic of Cationic Dye Using Poly (Sodium Acrylate)-Carrageenan/Na-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Superabsorbents. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 2012; 3 (5): 895-906.
Mahdavinia GR, Massoumi B, Jalili K, Kiani G. Effect of sodium montmorillonite nanoclay on the water absorbency and cationic dye removal of carrageenan- based nanocomposite superabsorbents. J. Polym. Res. 2012; 19: 9947.
Mahdavinia GR, Baghban A, Zorofi S, Massoudi A. Kappa-Carrageenan Biopolymer-Based Nanocomposite Hydrogel and Adsorption of Methylene Blue Cationic Dye from Water. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 2014; 5(2): 330-337.
Tavengwa B, Lilian T. Adsorption of Methyl Orange, Pb2+ and Cd2+ from Aqueous Solution by Composites of Lignocellulose-Montmorillonite Modified with Methacryloxypropyl Trimethoxysilane. Macromolecular Symposia. 2012; 313-314(1): 146-156.
Sun Y-X, Ren Z-L, Li Y-Q. Preparation of Organic Chelating Agents Modified Bentonite for Mixed Contaminant Removal from Aqueous Solutions, Geomatics for Integrated Water Resources Management (GIWRM). International Symposium on. 2012; 1–4.
Hashem FS. Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions using Fe3O4/ Bentonite Nanocomposite. Hydrology Current Research. 2012; 3: 5.
Tahir H, Sultan M, Qadir Z. Physiochemical Modification and Characterization of Bentonite Clay and Its Application for the Removal of Reactive Dyes, International Journal of Chemistry. 2013; 5(3).
Yanru S, Zhenhua X, Ximing W. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by sorption on lignocellulose-g-poly (acrylic acid)/montmorillonite three-dimensional cross-linked polymeric network hydrogels, Polymer Bulletin. 2013; 70: 1163-1179.
Kun-hong, Zhao Di-fang, Liu Jun-sheng, Synthesis of nano-MoS2/bentonite composite and its application for removal of organic dye HU Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 22(2012) 24842490.
Sebastian S, Mayadevi S, Beevi BS, Sujata Mandal S. Layered Clay-Alginate Composites for the Adsorption of Anionic Dyes: A Biocompatible Solution for Water/Wastewater Treatment, Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2014; 6: 177-184.
Yang C, Zhu Y, Wang J, Li Z, Su X, Chunge Niu, Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2–WO3–bentonite composites: Conventional versus ultrasonic pretreatments and their adsorption of methylene blue, Applied Clay Science 2015, 105–106, 243–251.
Liu Q, Yang B, Zhang L, Huang R, Adsorption of an anionic azo dye by cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2015, 72, 1129–1135.
Benhouria A, Islam MA, Zaghouane-Boudiaf H, Boutahala M, Hameed BH, Calcium alginate–bentonite–activated carbon composite beads as highly effective adsorbent for methylene blue, Chemical Engineering Journal 2015, 270, 621–630.
Toor M, Jin B, Dai S, Vimonses V, Activating natural bentonite as a cost-effective adsorbent for removal of Congo-red in wastewater, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2015, 21, 653–661.
Chinoune K, Bentaleb K, Bouberka Z, Nadim A, Maschke U, Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solution by dirty bentonite, Applied Clay Science 2016, 123, 64–75.