Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News Unsubscribe Page
Physicochemical Quality of Milk from Dairy Cows Supplemented with Liquid Brewer’s Yeast in Smallholder Dairy Farms
Current Issue
Volume 6, 2019
Issue 2 (March)
Pages: 18-23   |   Vol. 6, No. 2, March 2019   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 29   Since Apr. 16, 2019 Views: 151   Since Apr. 16, 2019
Authors
[1]
Peter Alphonce Obuong Alaru, Department of Dairy and Food Science and Technology, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya; Dairy Research Institute, Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Naivasha, Kenya.
[2]
Alfred Anakalo Shitandi, Department of Dairy and Food Science and Technology, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya.
[3]
Symon Maina Mahungu, Department of Dairy and Food Science and Technology, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya.
[4]
John Muasya Kilumba Muia, Dairy Research Institute, Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Naivasha, Kenya.
Abstract
A study was conducted to evaluate physicochemical quality of raw milk from dairy cows supplemented with liquid brewer’s yeast (LBY) in smallholder dairy farms. The milk was delivered from different routes to Githunguri Dairy Farmers’ Cooperative Society in Kiambu County, Githunguri Sub-county, Kenya. The main objective was to ascertain suitability for use of LBY as alternative feed source for dairy cows without compromising on milk quality. Thirty farms (sampling units) were randomly selected from three milk delivery routes (sampling frame). A longitudinal survey was conducted where farms were nested within routes and equal number of farms selected per route based on supplementation of lactating cows with either LBY or commercial dairy meal (CDM). A repeated measure analysis was performed using the Linear Mixed Models methodology by PROC MIXED of SAS for milk quality and questionnaire data was summarized using descriptive statistics. Milk samples were analysed for physicochemical parameters such as butter fat (BF), protein, lactose, total ash, solid not fat (SNF), density and milk freezing point (MFP). The results indicated significantly (p<0.05) higher milk protein levels and lower freezing point for milk from LBY supplemented cows (3.07±0.03% and -0.532±0.005°C) compared to those supplemented with CDM (2.99±0.03% and -0.516±0.005°C). This was an indication of positive effect of LBY supplementation on the two parameters. The other physicochemical parameters were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the type of supplementation regime, although higher levels were observed on LBY supplemented diets than CDM diets. The study indicates that LBY can be used as feed supplement for dairy cows without compromising on physicochemical quality of milk. In view of this, the research recommends use of LBY as a cost effective alternative protein source for dairy cows.
Keywords
Feed Supplement, Liquid Brewer’s Yeast, Physicochemical Milk Quality, Smallholder Dairy Farms
Reference
[1]
Government of Kenya. (2010). Kenya National Dairy Master Plan Volume 1: Situational Analysis of the Dairy Sub-sector. Nairobi: Government Printer.
[2]
Muia, J. M., Kariuki, J. N., Mbugua, P. N., Gachuiri, C. K., Lukibisi, L., Ayako, W. O., and Ngunjiri, W. V. (2011). Smallholder Dairy Production in High Altitude Nyandarua Milk-Shed in Kenya: Status, Challenges and Opportunities. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23 (108), 1-12.
[3]
FAO. (2011). Global Food Losses and Waste. Extent, Causes and Prevention. Rome: FAO.
[4]
Gichohi, M. (2014). Status of the Kenya Dairy Industry. MD, Kenya Dairy Board.
[5]
Muriuki, H. G. (2011). Dairy Development in Kenya. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
[6]
Omore, A., Muriuki, H. G. M., Kenyanjui, M., Owango, M and Staal, S. (2004). The Kenyan Dairy Sub Sector: a Rapid Appraisal. SDP Research and Development Report. Smallholder Dairy Project (SDP), Nairobi, Kenya.
[7]
Wambugu, S., Kirimi, L., and Opiyo, J. (2011). Productivity Trends and Performance of Dairy Farming in Kenya. Report WPS 43/2011. Nairobi: Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Egerton University.
[8]
Ndungu, T. W., Omwamba M., Muliro P. S., and Oosterwijk G. (2016). Hygienic Practices and Critical Control Points Along the Milk Collection Chains in Smallholder Collection and Bulking Enterprises in Nakuru and Nyandarua Counties, Kenya. African Journal of Food Science, 10 (11), 327-339.
[9]
Kerby, C., and Vriesekoop, F. (2017). An Overview of the Utilisation of Brewery By-Products as Generated by British Craft Breweries. Beverages, 3 (24), 1-12.
[10]
Alaru, P. A. O., Shitandi, A. A., and Mahungu, S. M. (2018). Effect of Handling Practices of Liquid Brewer’s Yeast on Microbial Growth During Storage and Risk Unit Suitability as Feed Supplement in Smallholder Dairy Farms. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 5 (4), 26–30.
[11]
Mathias, T. R. S., de Mello, P. P. M. and Servulo, E. F. C., (2014). Solid Wastes in Brewing Process: A review. Journal of Brewing and Distilling, 5 (11), 1-9.
[12]
Heuzé V., Thiollet H., Tran G., Edouard N., Lessire M., and Lebas F., 2018. Brewers Yeast. Feedipedia, a Programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/72 Last Updated on December 13, 2018, 10: 21.
[13]
Gargouri, A., Hamed, H., and Elfeki, A. (2013). Analysis of Raw Milk Quality at Reception and During Cold Storage: Combined Effects of Somatic Cell Counts and Psychrotrophic Bacteria on Lipolysis. Journal of Food Science, 78, 1405-1411.
[14]
Kitchen, B. J. (1981). Review of the Progress of Dairy Science: Bovine Mastitis, Milk Compositional Changes and Related Diagnostic Tests. Journal of Dairy Research, 48, 167-188.
[15]
Mwangi, A., Arimi, S. M., Mbugua, S., Kangethe, E. K., and Omore. A. O. (2000). Assurance of Marketed Milk Quality in Kenya. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference. Nairobi: University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[16]
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Edition Volume II. Association of Analytical Chemists: Washington DC.
[17]
SAS Institute Inc. (2013). SAS/STAT 13.1 User's Guide Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
[18]
Littell, R. C., Henry, P. R., and Ammerman, C. B. (1998). Statistical Analysis of Repeated Measures Data using SAS Procedures. Journal of Animal Science, 76, 1216-1231.
[19]
Kabui, K. K., Arimi, S. M., Kang'ethe, E. K., Omore, A., Makokha, S., Nduhiu, G., Mainga, A. O., and Macharia, J. K. (2015). A Determination of Raw Milk Quality and the Most Suitable Microbiological Test at the Milk Collection Level in Two Regions of Kenya. International Journal of Veterinary Science, 4 (2): 55-59.
[20]
Poppy, G. D., Rabiee, A. R., Lean, I. J., Sanchez, W. K., Dorton, K. L., and Morley, P. S. (2012). A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Feeding Yeast Culture Produced by Anaerobic Fermentation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on Milk Production of Lactating Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 95 (10), 6027–6041.
[21]
Shreedhar, J. N., Patil, M., and Kumar, P. (2016). Effects of Probiotics Supplementation on Milk Yield and its Composition in Lactating Holstein Fresian and Deoni Cross Bred Cows. Journal of Medical and Bioengineering, 5 (1), 19-23.
[22]
Beauchemin, K. A., Yang, W. Z., Morgavi, D. P., Ghorbani, G. R., and Kautz, W. (2003). Effect of Bacterial Direct-Fed Microbial and Yeast on Site and Extent of Digestion, Blood Chemistry and Subclinical Acidosis in Feedlot Cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 81: 1628-1640.
[23]
Ayad, M. A., Benallou, B., Saim, M. S., Smadi, M. A., and Meziane, T. (2013). Impact of Feeding Yeast Culture on Milk Yield, Milk Components and Blood Components in Algerian Dairy Herds. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 4: 135.
[24]
Harding, F. (1999). Milk quality. Aspen publication, (pp. 62-67). Gaithersburg.
[25]
Bjerg, M., Rasmussen, M. D. (2005). Freezing Point of Bulk Tank Milk in Denmark. Proceedings NMC 44th Annual meeting, Orlando, FL. Verona: National Mastitis Council.
[26]
Bowman, M. (2005). Significant of Nutritional Effect on the Freezing Point of Milk. Ontario Agri-business Association Nutrition Committee.
[27]
Harris, B., Jr., and Webb, D. W. (1990). The Effect of Feeding a Concentrated Yeast Culture Product to Lactating Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 73 (1): 266.
[28]
Putnam, D. E., Schwab, C. G., Socha., M. T., Whitehouse., N. L., Kierstead, N. A., and Garthwaite, B. D. (1997). Effect of Yeast Culture in the Diets of Lactation Dairy Cows on Ruminal Fermentation and Passage of Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids to the Small Intestine. Journal of Dairy Science, 80 (2): 374-384.
[29]
Martin, S. A. and Nisbet, D. J. (1990). Effects of Aspergillus Oryzae Fermentation Extract on Fermentation of Amino Acids and Starch by Mixed Ruminal Microorganisms Invitro. Journal of Animal Science, 68 (7), 2142-2149.
[30]
Harris, B., and Bachman, K. C. (2003, June 1). Nutritional and Management Factors Affecting Solids-Non Fat, Acidity and Freezing Point on Milk. IFAS Extension, pp. 1-5.
[31]
Jouany, J. P., and Morgavi, D. P. (2007). Use of 'Natural' Products as Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additives in Ruminant Production. Animal, 1 (10), 1443-1466.
[32]
Bruno, R. G. S., Rutigliano, H. M. Cerri, R. L. Robinson, P. H., and Santos, J. E. P. (2009). Effect of Feeding Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on Performance of Dairy Cows During Summer Heat Stress. Animal Feed Science and Technology 150 (3), 175-185.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved