Growing Ruminants Fed Rations Containing Bread Wastes: A Review
In Egypt there is an acute shortage of feed and fodder, being the greatest stumbling block in the improvement of animal production. The cropping pattern shows the heavy dependence on berseem as a winter forage crop with the almost absence of forage in summer rotations. Thus during the December to May period, feeding livestock relies almost entirely on berseem, while for the rest of the year, animals, particularly ruminants, have to survive mainly on crop residues and very small amount of concentrates from extracting oil seeds and milling grains mainly wheat and rice. One of the possible ways of narrowing the gap between the supply and requirements of animal feeds in Egypt is to utilize all agro-industrial by-products which have not yet been used as animal feed. All possible by-products must be integrated with the present feed ingredients to formulate new and suitable rations hoping to approach optimal animal production. Even with maximum utilization of all suitable by-products along with conventional feed ingredients, there will be still insufficient amounts of nutrients to provide adequate requirements for the present animal population in Egypt. Soybean, peanut, and sunflower seeds are widely used for the production of vegetable oils and the remained meals are rich in protein, dietary fibers, and carbohydrates. The major of oilseed meals is used for animal and poultry feeding. The world attention has been directed towards defining and seeking a solution to the problem of diet deficiency. In Egypt and other developing countries, protein shortage and protein caloric malnutrition constitute a prevalent problem. Fiber chemistry is complex and different sources of fiber contain different types of components. Wheat bran, for example, is rich in insoluble components, whereas certain fruits such as apples and citrus fruits are high in soluble fiber (pectin). Inedible wheat flour (IWF) and pasta industry (PW) waste are products that do not comply with the specifications for the flour grade intended for human consumption but have been found to be suitable as feed ingredients in livestock ration. In addition, pasta industry waste (PW) has been estimated at 4-6% of the total annual production of the pasta in Egypt. This review was undertaken to investigate the possibility of utilizing BBy as sources of energy of feed ingredients in rations for growing lambs without reducing animal performance, nutrients digestibilities and feeding values, some rumen liquor parameters, blood constituents and carcass characteristics.
Growing Ruminants, Nutritional, Physiological, Performance, Carcass Traits, Bread Wastes, Residues of Restaurants, Yeast of Baker (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae)
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