Effects of Limestone Application on Concentrations and Chemical Forms of Phosphorus in Different-Size Aggregates in Acidic Soil
To assess the changes in the forms and concentrations of P, aggregate stability, Ferrosols was amended with two different rates (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg) of limestone (X1 and X2) with control (CK) as 0g/kg. After 70 days, the incubated soils were analyzed for microbial biomass P (MBP), total P (total Phosphorus), available Phosphorus (available Phosphorus), Hedley P fractions (water soluble- Phosphorus; NaHCO3-IP; NaHCO3-OP; NaOH-IP; NaOH-OP; HCL-P and Residual Phosphorus), 31P composition, and water stable aggregate sizes (WSA). The highest, total P, available P, water soluble-P, NaHCO3-IP, NaOH-IP, HCL-P and Residual P were measured in the X2. The highest content of MBP was measured in X1 in contrary X2 shows the lowest content. Also limestone decreased the concentration of NaHCO3-OP and NaOH-OP in X1 and X2 treatments. On the other hand liming results in highest value of WSA representing the microbial activities result in and contribute on bonding agent for macro-aggregation. The high orthophosphate is largely caused by high limestone and low differences between the treatments. Limestone application increases total and available and labile P pools, stimulates microbial activities, in turn increases macro-aggregation, and thus soil quality. 31P NMR spectroscopy revealed that orthophosphate was the major inorganic compounds 66% in bulk soil and WSA sizes. Followed by monoester and diester were the major organic P compounds 20% and 13% unknown 6% respectively. The results of sequential extraction and 31P NMR spectroscopy indicate that application of limestone not only increased the amount of inorganic P forms, but also influenced the structural composition and bioavailability of P in acid soil.
Limestone, Phosphorus Forms, Water Stable Aggregates, Total P, and Microbial Biomass P
Bolan, N. S., D. C. Adriano, and D. Curtin. 2003. Soil acidification and liming interactions with nutrient and heavy metal transformation and bioavailability. Advances in Agronomy 78: 215–272.
Viade, A., Fernandez-Marcos, M. L., Nistal, J. H., & Alvarez, E. (2011). Effect of limestone of different sizes on soil extractable phosphorus and its concentrations in grass and clover species. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 42 (4), 381-394.
Fageria, N. K. 2009. The Use of Nutrients in Crop Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Fribourg, H. A., and K. W. Bell. 1984. Yield and composition of tall fescue stockpiled for different periods. Agronomy Journal 76: 929–934.
He, Z. L., Baligar, V. C., Martens, D. C., & Ritchey, K. D. (1997). Effect of phosphate rock, lime and cellulose on soil microbial biomass in acidic forest soil and its significance in carbon cycling. Biology and fertility of soils, 24 (3), 329-334.
Hamilton, E. J., Miles, R. J., Lukaszewska, K., Remley, M., Massie, M., & Blevins, D. G. (2012). Liming of two acidic soils improved grass tetany ratio of stockpiled tall fescue without increasing plant available phosphorus. Journal of plant nutrition, 35 (4), 497-510.
M. I. Makarov, L. Haumaier, W. Zech, T. I. Malysheva. 2004. Organic phosphorus compounds in particleesize fractions of mountain soils in the northwestern Caucasus, Geoderma 118 101e114.
C. R. Chen, L. M. Condron, M. R. Davis, R. R. Sherlock, 2002. Phosphorus dynamics in the rhizosphere of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.), Soil Biol. Biochem. 34 487e499.
C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Pai, K. L. Yang, Characterization of phosphorus in Prado, R. D. M., & Fernandes, F. M. (2001). Effect of slag and limestone on the availability of phosphorus of an Oxisol planted with sugarcane. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 36 (9), 1199-1204.
Curtin, D., & Smillie, G. W. (1984). Influence of liming on soluble and labile P in fertilized soil. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis, 15 (2), 177-188.
Hyland, C., Ketterings, Q., Dewing, D., Stockin, K., Czymmek, K., Albrecht, G., & Geohring, L. (2005). Phosphorus basics—The phosphorus cycle. Agronomy Fact Sheet Series.
Yang, X., & Post, W. M. (2011). Phosphorus transformations as a function of pedogenesis: A synthesis of soil phosphorus data using Hedley fractionation method. Biogeosciences, 8 (10), 2907.
Havlin, J. L., Beaton, J. D., Tisdale, S. L., and Nelson, W. L. 2005. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Silva, J. and Uchida, R. S. (eds). 2000. Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii’s Soils: Approaches for Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.
Amundson, R., Guo, Y., and Gong, P. 2003. Soil Diversity and Land Use in the United States. Ecosystems 6: 470-482.
Guo, J. H., Liu, X. J., Zhang, Y., Shen, L., Han, W. X., Zhang, W. F., Christie, P., Goulding, K. W. T., Vitousek, P. M., Zhang, F. S., 2010. Significant acidification in major chineses croplands. Science 327, 1008.
Glaser, B., 2007. Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B. Biological Sciences 362, 187–196.
Syed M. A., Syed S. Mehdi N. and Raziuddin A. 1999, Impact of Soil pH on Nutrient Uptake by Crop Plants, Nuclear Institute of Agricultural Tanso Jam, Sindh, Pakistan.