Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News Unsubscribe Page
Use of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Indices as Bioindicators of Ecosystem Health for the Detection of Degraded Landscapes in Malawi
Current Issue
Volume 5, 2017
Issue 6 (December)
Pages: 128-134   |   Vol. 5, No. 6, December 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 27   Since Dec. 20, 2017 Views: 904   Since Dec. 20, 2017
Authors
[1]
Elias Rabson Chirwa, Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Science, Mzuzu University, Mzuzu, Malawi.
[2]
Limbikani Chilima, Department of Aquaculture & Fisheries Science, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lilongwe, Malawi.
Abstract
A study was conducted in Lilongwe West Rural Development Project (RDP) in central Malawi to investigate the potential use of benthic macroinvertebrates as affordable and cost-effective bioindicators of landscape degradation in Malawi. Benthic macroinvertebrates were studied in two reservoirs, Bunda and Kamuzu Dam I. A total of 778 individuals belonging to ten (10) taxonomic groups were encountered in the two reservoirs: oligochaete worms (30.70%), bivalves (15.04%), leeches (12.08%), crustaceans (11.18%), chironomids (8.99%), gastropods (8.22%), stonefly nymphs (4.24%), mayfly nymphs (3.60%), caddisfly larvae (2.70) and dragonfly nymph (2.70%). Application of t-tests on community assemblage metrics, pollution tolerance index (PTI), biodiversity and physico-chemical indices showed the two reservoirs differed significantly (p<0.05) in 69 per cent of biological indices and 11 per cent of physico-chemical indices, with Bunda reservoir having less EPT (mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies), more oligochaete worms, more chironomid larvae, higher Simpson’s index (D), lower Simpson’s diversity index (1-D), Shannon’s index (H), Margalef’s (DMg) and Pielou’s (Jˋ) indices, lower PTI, higher percentage chironomids and lower Secchi disk visibility than Kamuzu Dam I. Results show that Bunda reservoir is fairly polluted with organic matter washed into it from the surrounding farmed landscapes through soil erosion. Deforestation and unsustainable farming practices accounted for landscape degradation around the reservoirs, while Dzalanyama Forest Reserve protected much of the Lilongwe River on which Kamuzu Dam I is located. Landscapes in the catchment area of Bunda reservoir are considered degraded and recommended for restoration through establishment of vegetative land cover. Benthic macroinvertebrates have high potential for use as biological indicators of ecosystem health for the identification of deforested degraded landscapes in Malawi and other developing countries of the tropics.
Keywords
Benthic Macroinvertebrates, Bioindicators, Ecosystem Health, Lilongwe, Malawi
Reference
[1]
Abel, P. D. 2002. Water Pollution Biology, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis. Sunderland, UK. 287p.
[2]
Armitage, P. D., Pinder, L. C., Cranston, P. (eds.). 1995. The Chironomidae: Biology and ecology of non-biting midges. Chapman & Hall. 52p.
[3]
APHA, 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
[4]
Beisel, J-N, Polatera, P. U., Bachmann, V. and Moreteau, J-C., 2003. A Comparative Analysis of Evenness Index Sensitivity. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 88 (1): 3-15.
[5]
Black, R. 2008. Nature loss ‘to hurt global poor’, BBC News, 29 May 2008.
[6]
Bonada, N., Prat, N., Resh, V. H. and Statz-ner, B. 2006. Developments in aquatic insect biomonitoring: a comparative analysis of recent approaches. Annu Rev Entomol 51: 495-523.
[7]
Boyd, C. E., 1979. Water Quality in Warmwater Fish Ponds. Auburn University, Alabama. 359 pp.
[8]
Cheimonopoulou, M. T., Bobori, D. C., Theocharopoulos, I., Lazaridou, M. 2011. Assessing ecological water quality with Macroinvertebrates and fish: a case study from a small Mediterranean River. Environmental Management 47: 279-290.
[9]
Couceiro, S. R. M., Hamada, N. Forsberg, B. R., Pimentel, T. P. and Luz, S. L. B., 2012. “A macroinvertebrate multimetric index to evaluate the biological condition of streams in the Central Amazon region of Brazil,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 18, pp. 118-125.
[10]
Czerniawska-Kusza, I. 2005. Comparing modified biological monitoring working party score system and several biological indices based on macroinvertebrates for water-quality assessment. Limnologica, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 169–176, 2005.
[11]
Deborde, D. D., Hernandez, M. B. M. and Magbanua, F. S. 2016. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community as an Indicator of Stream Health: The Effects of Land Use on Stream Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Science Diliman (July-December 2016) 28: 2, 5-26.
[12]
George, A. D. I, Abowei, J. F. N., Daka, E. R., 2009. Benthic Macro Invertebrate Fauna and Physico-chemical Parameters in Okpoka Creek Sediments, Niger Delta. Nigeria International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 1 (2): 59-65.
[13]
Golterman, H. L., 1991. Physiological limnology: an approach to the physiology of lake ecosystem. Elsevier Scientific Publication Comp. Amsterdam. Oxford, New York, 249-277.
[14]
Hamid, S. A., & Md Rawi, C. S. (2014). Ecology of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) in Rivers of the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve: Diversity and Distribution of Functional Feeding Groups. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 25 (1), 61–73.
[15]
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T., Ryan, P. D. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4 (1): 9pp. http://palaeo-electronica.org/2001_1/past/issue1_01.htm
[16]
Higginbottom, T. P. and Symeonakis, E. 2014. Assessing Land Degradation and Desertification Using Vegetative Index Data: Current Frameworks and Future Directions. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 9552-9575; doi: 10.3390/rs6109552.
[17]
Houghton, R. A. 2005. Tropical deforestation as a source of greenhouse gas emissions. In: Tropical deforestation and Climate change, eds. Moutinho, P. and Schwartzman, S. pp 13-20. Amazon Institute for Environmental Research, Belem Brazil.
[18]
Idowu, E. O. and Ogwumba, A. A. A., 2005. Physical, chemical and benthic faunal characteristics of a Southern Nigeria Reservoir. The Zoologist, 3: 15-25.
[19]
Izaak Walton League of American (IWLA), 1994. Creek Connection Aquatic Life Module. Aquatic Macro-invertebrate Sampling. Adapted from Volunteer Stream Monitoring Methods Manual, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Draft Document EPA 841-B-97-003.
[20]
Jepma, C. J. 1995. Tropical deforestation. A socio-economic approach. Earthscan Publications, London. 316 pp.
[21]
Kambwiri, A. M., Changadeya, W., Chimphamba, J. and Tandwe, T., 2014. Land Use Impacts on Water Quality of Rivers draining from Mulanje Mountain: A Case of Ruo River in the Southern Malawi. Malawi Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 10 (1), 2014.
[22]
Kaonga, C. C., Kosamu, I. B., Lakudzala, D. D., Mbewe, R., Thole, B., Monjerezi, M., Chidya, R. C. G., Kuyeli, S. and Sajidu, S. M. I., 2012. Periphyton and Earthworms as Biological Indicators of Metal Pollution in Streams of Blantyre City, Malawi. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 11 (9), pp. 448-460. DOI: 10.5897/AJEST2017.2367.
[23]
Kapalanga, T. S. 2008. A review of land degradation assessment methods. Final Project. Land Restoration Training Programme, Reykjavik, Iceland.
[24]
Karr, J. R. 1998. Rivers As Sentinels: Using the Biology of Rivers to Guide Landscape Management. In River Ecology and Management: Lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion, ed. R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby, 502-528. New York: Springer-Verlag.
[25]
Kartikasari, D., Retnaningdyah, C. and Arisoesilaningsih, E. 2013. Application of Water Quality and Ecology Indices of Benthic Macroinvertebrate to Evaluate Water Quality of Tertiary Irrigation in Malang District. The Journal of Tropical Life Science 3 (3): 193-201.
[26]
Klemm, D. J., Philip, A. L. and Florence, L. 1990. Macro-invertebrate Field and Laboratory Method for Evaluating the Biology Integrity of Surface Water United State Environmental Protection Agency, 256.
[27]
Lal R. (1990) Soil Erosion and Land Degradation: The Global Risks. In: Lal R., Stewart B. A. (eds) Advances in Soil Science. Advances in Soil Science, vol 11. Springer, New York, NY.
[28]
Lanly, J-P. 2003. Deforestation and forest degradation factors. XII World Forestry Congress paper.
[29]
Lencioni, V., Marziali, L. and Rossaro, B. 2012. Chironomids as bioindicators of environmental quality in mountain springs. Freshwater Science 31 (2): 525-541.
[30]
Macan, T. T., 1959. A guide to Freshwater invertebrate animals. Longman, England. 118 pp.
[31]
Mandaville, S. M. 1999. Bioassessment of Freshwaters Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates – A Primer. 1st edn. Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax. 244pp.
[32]
Magurran, A. E., 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell.
[33]
Metcalfe, J. L., 1989. Biological Water Quality Assessment of Running Waters Based on Macroinvertebrate Communities: History and Present Status in Europe, Environmental Pollution, 60: 101-139.
[34]
Morris, E. K., Caruso, T., Buscot, F., Fischer, M., Hancock, C., Maier, T. S., Meiners, T., Muller, C., Obermaier, E., Prati, D., Socher, S. A., Sonnemann, I., Waschke, N., Wubet, T., Wurst, S. and Rillig, M. C. (2014). Choosing and using diversity indices: insights for ecological applications from the German Biodiversity Exploratories. Ecology and Evolution, 4 (18), 3514–3524. http://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1155
[35]
Munthali, K. G. and Murayama, Y. 2013. Interdependences between Smallholder Farming and Environmental Management in Rural Malawi: A Case of Agriculture-Induced Environmental Degradation in Malingunde Extension Planning Area (EPA). Land 2013, 2, 158-175.
[36]
Nemus, 2013. Environment and social impact assessment for Rehabilitation and Raising of Kamuzu Dam 1. ENSA Report. Lilongwe Water Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Lilongwe.
[37]
NEPAD. 2017. African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative, Overview by New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 16 April 2017. (Overview prepared by the World Resources Institute, NEPAD, and German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and the World Bank.
[38]
Resende, P. C., Resende, P., Pardal, M., Almeida, S. and Azeiteiro, U., 2010. Use of biological indicators to assess water quality of the Ul River (Portugal). Environ. Monit. Assess. (2010) 170: 535-544. DOI 10.1007/s10661-009-1255-4.
[39]
Snel, M. and Bot, A. 2003. Draft Paper: Suggested indicators for Land Degradation Assessment of Drylands. FAO, Rome.
[40]
Thorp, J. H., and Covich, A. P. (eds.). 2001. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego, California. 1038 pp.
[41]
Uherek, C. B. and Gouvela, F. B. P., 2014. Biological Monitoring Using Macroinverebrates of Water Quality of Maroaga Stream in the Maroaga Cave System, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazon, Brazil. International Journal of Ecology, Volume 2014, Article ID 308149, 7 pages. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/308149
[42]
US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 1997. “Field and laboratory methods for macroinvertebrate and habitat assessment of low gradient potential stream”: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Streams Workgroup, Environmental Services Division, Region 3, Wheeling, WV; 23 pages with appendices.
[43]
Welch, P. S., 1998. Liminological methods Mcgran Hill Book Co. New York. WHO, 1978. A Field Guide to African Freshwater Snails. WHO Snail Identification Center, Danish Bilharziasis Lab. Jaegersborg, Charlottenlund Denmark, 30pp.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-2017, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved