Biochemical and Histopathological Assessment of Organs of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) Juveniles Exposed to Municipal Sewage Effluent
The study evaluates the biochemical and histological changes that occurred in some organs of African catfish (C. gariepinus) exposed to varying concentration of municipal sewage. Two hundred and twenty (220) fingerlings of C. gariepinus (7.65 ± 0.02 g) were randomly stocked in five glass tank in duplicate at 10 fish per tank with varying sewage concentration of 8.24%, 4.12%, 2.06%, 1.03% and 0% for 90 days. The raw sewage, gills and muscles of the exposed fish were analysed for heavy metal content. Also, the muscle, liver and gill of the exposed fish were assayed for Total Protein (Tp), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione Reductase (GR), Glutathione-s-transferase (GST) using standard methods. The order of heavy metals analysed in the sewage were Fe > Cu > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. However, heavy metal accumulation in the muscle was found to be in the order Cu > Fe > Cd > Cr > Zn > Pb while that of gills followed the order Fe > Cu > Zn > Cd > Cr > Pb. The activities of the assayed enzymes showed a general increase in hepatic enzymes ALT and AST in the organs of the fish juvenile which was significant (p<0.05) mostly at the higher concentrations (4.12% and 8.24%) while the antioxidant enzymes showed a generally depressed activity with increase in sewage concentrations. At the end of the culture period, mortality was highest in the treatment with 8.24% concentration. Liver histopathology revealed anomalies and alterations within the architecture of test fish liver which was consistent upon increased concentration of sewage. The study concluded that municipal sewage concentrations had adverse effect on fish eco-physiology.
Heavy Metal, Bioaccumulation, Municipal Effluent, Enzymes, Histological Alteration, Eco-physiology
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