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Effect of Crowding on Hoppers Colour of Tree Locust Anacridium melanorhodon melanorhodon (Walker) in Gum Arabic Belt in Sudan
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Volume 7, 2019
Issue 1 (March)
Pages: 9-17   |   Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2019   |   Follow on         
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Omer Rahama Mohamed Rahama, Department of Crop Plant Protection Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobied, Sudan.
Amna Osman Mohammed Fadul, Department of Crop Plant Protection Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobied, Sudan.
Abdelmanan Elzein Hassan Elamin, Department of Crop Plant Protection Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobied, Sudan.
Magzoub Omer Bashir Ahmed, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
The tree locust, Anacridium melanorhodon melanorhodon (Walker, 1870) (Acrididae: Orthoptera), has been known to cause sporadic damage mainly to trees. In Sudan, it is called night wanderer (Sari El Lil) because of its nocturnal activity. It is commonly found on the Sudanese western sand, causing substantial damage to the gum arabic producing Acacia senegal (Hashab) trees. This study was carried out during 2007/08 and 2008/09. Laboratory experiments were done at The Gum Arabic Research Centre, University of Kordofan North Kordofan State, Sudan. The objectives of the study are to investigate the Effect of crowding on pigmentation of hoppers in tree locust Anacridium melanorhodon melanorhodon (Walker). Hoppers were reared in cages (30 cm ×30 cm ×40 cm). The cages were made of wood with sides covered by wire mesh, leaving an opening at one side covered by a muslin sleeve for manipulation of hoppers inside the cage and for cleaning. Three groups of four cages each were used to study pigmentation of hoppers. Group one contained one newly hatched hopper in each cage, group two contained 10 newly hatched hoppers in each cage and group three contained 100 newly hatched hoppers in each cage. The results showed that, crowding decreased the % age of green colour hoppers but increased % age of yellow and orange colour. Crowding had no effect on brown colour. Also crowding of hoppers enhanced the formation of dark spots on clypeus-labrum, dorsal and lateral pronotum, wing venation, hind femur, tibia, tarsus and abdomen. The darkening of body segments appeared on all crowding hoppers than individuals. Different changes among population density of the tree locust concerning colour, morphology, build the gregarious phase that lead to outbreaks that could take place and lead to considerable damage to crops and the economical trees such as A. senegal.
Tree Locust, Hoppers, Density Pigmentation, North Kordofan, Sudan
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