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Beneficial Aspects of Feeding Soybean Meal (SBM) Fermented with Fungal and Bacterial Actions in Broiler Chickens
Current Issue
Volume 5, 2017
Issue 4 (August)
Pages: 21-29   |   Vol. 5, No. 4, August 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 71   Since Jul. 3, 2017 Views: 1925   Since Jul. 3, 2017
Authors
[1]
Rab Nawaz Soomro, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, P. R. China; Department of Poultry Productions, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam, Pakistan; Livestock and Dairy Development Department Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
[2]
Junhu Yao, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, P. R. China.
[3]
Muhammad Aslam Gola, Livestock and Dairy Development Department Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
[4]
Amjid Ali, Livestock and Dairy Development Department Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
[5]
Maw Ni Soe Htet, 4State Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Tillage in Northwestern Loess Plateau, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, P. R. China.
[6]
Saeed Ahmed Soomro, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam, Pakistan.
[7]
Majid Hussain Soomro, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences at Sakrand Sindh, Pakistan.
[8]
Abdul Aziz Soomro, State Key Laboratory of Agriculture Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
[9]
Muhammad Asif Arain, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, P. R. China.
[10]
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, P. R. China.
[11]
Mustafa Rahim Abro, Livestock and Dairy Development Department Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
[12]
Muhammad Saeed, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, P. R. China.
Abstract
Methods to estimate the digestibility of nitrogenous components and amino acids in chickens and ducks have been developed and tested by numerous authors. The discrepancies between the findings of different researchers make it very difficult to make clear and definite conclusions as to which method is most scientifically appropriate and relevant, and can be used as a standard method for the determination of digestibility of nutrients and amino acid retention. Besides the scientific aspects, the appropriateness of the methods to be used must be based also on the local context and available facilities and be economically viable. Soybean meal (SBM), a commonly used protein source for animal feed, contains anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oligosaccharides among others, which limit its utilization. Microbial fermentation using bacteria or fungi has the capability to improve nutritional value of SBM by altering the native composition. Both submerged and solid state fermentation processes can be used for this purpose. Bacterial and fungal fermentations result in degradation of various anti-nutritional factors, an increase in amount of small-sized peptides and improved content of both essential and non-essential amino acids. However, the resulting fermented products vary in levels of nutritional components as the two species used for fermentation differ in their metabolic activities. Compared to SBM, feeding non-ruminants with fermented SBM has several beneficial effects in poultry.
Keywords
Soybean Meal (SBM), Amino Acids Digestibility, Fermentation, Beneficial Effects, Bacteria, Fungus
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