Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Water Entry in Dry Soybeans at Imbibition Observed by Dedicated Micro-Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2014
Issue 1 (February)
Pages: 6-11   |   Vol. 2, No. 1, February 2014   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 35   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 2129   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Authors
[1]
Mika Koizumi, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjyuku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan.
[2]
Hiromi Kano, Oak-Hill Georgic Patch-Work Laboratory, 4-13-10, Miyamoto, Funabashi, Chiba 273-0003, Japan.
Abstract
Water entry into dry soybeans (Glycine max) and delivery paths inside the testa at initial stages of imbibition were investigated. Time-lapse images of water uptake by the beans were tracked using a dedicated micro-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system equipped with a small 1.0-Tesla (T) permanent magnet. Images were continuously measured by the three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo method at 5-min intervals with a T1-weighted condition, where water incorporated in the seed was considered to be the tracer of water migration. There was no barrier against water intruding into the seed coat for soybeans, i.e., activation of the water channel was not needed. Water was taken up from the raphe and rapidly transported to the hypocotyl at the base of the radicle pocket through paths formed in the dorsal testa, while water migrated via another path through the hilar tissue by the hilum and reached the radicle tip. Water incorporation inside the embryonic sac seemed biologically regulated because water did not penetrate into the space between the protruding hypocotyl-radicle axis and the cotyledons, or between expanding cotyledons, for considerable periods; which protects the seed from soaking damage. The raphe is considered to be the water entry for soybeans. Water is transported over the seed coat through vascular traces near the raphe. The intensely contrasted images in a low-field MRI might clearly exhibit the direction of water migration at imbibition for dry soybeans. The light and small MRI equipment is thought to be a useful means for seed researches.
Keywords
Dedicated MRI, Dry Seed, Imbibition, Seed Coat, Soybean (Glycine max), Time-lapse Imaging, Water Entry and Delivery
Reference
[1]
Ashworth, E.N. and Obendorf, R.L. Imbibitional chilling injury in soybean axes: relationship to stelar lesions and seasonal environments. Agronomy J 1980; 72: 923-928.
[2]
Callaghan P.T. Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
[3]
Chamberlin, M.A., Horner, H.T. and Palmer, R.G. Early endosperm, embryo, and ovule development in Glycine max (L.) Merr. Int J Plant Sci 1994; 155: 421-436.
[4]
Dell, B. Structure and function of the strophiolar plug in seeds of Albizia lophantha. Amer J Bot 1980; 67: 556-563.
[5]
Donker, H.C.W., Van As, H., Edzes, H.T. and Jans, A.W.H. NMR imaging of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporis) at various magnetic fields. Magn Reson Imaging 1996; 14: 1205-1215.
[6]
Duke, S.H. and Kakefuda, G. Role of the testa in preventing cellular rupture during imbibition of legume seeds. Plant Physiol 1981; 67: 449-456.
[7]
Edzes, H.T., van Dusschoten, D. and Van As, H. Quantitative T2 imaging of plant tissues by means of multi-echo MRI microscopy. Magn Reson Imaging 1998; 16: 185-196.
[8]
Farrar T. C. and Becker, E. D. Pulse and Fourier transform NMR: introduction to theory and methods. New York: Academic Press, 1971.
[9]
Garnczarska, M., Zalewski, T. and Kempka, M. Water uptake and distribution in germinating lupine seeds studied by magnetic resonance imaging and NMR spectroscopy. Physiol Plant 2007; 130: 23-32.
[10]
Gruwel, M.L.H., Latta, P., Volotovskyy, V., Šramek, M. and Tomanek, B. Magnetic resonance imaging of seeds by use of single point acquisition. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52: 4979-4983.
[11]
Heil, J.R., McCarthy, M.J. and Özilgen, M. Magnetic resonance imaging and modeling of water up-take into dry beans. Lebensm Wiss Technol 1992; 25: 280-285.
[12]
Hobbs, P.R. and Obendorf, R.L. Interaction of initial seed moisture and imbibitional temperature on germination and productivity of soybean. Crop Sci 1972; 12: 664-667.
[13]
Hu, X.W., Wang, Y.R., Wu, Y.P. and Baskin, C.C. Role of the lens in controlling water uptake in seeds of two Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) species treated with sulphuric acid and hot water. Seed Sci Res 2009; 19: 73-80.
[14]
Kikuchi, K., Koizumi, M., Ishida, N. and Kano, H. Water uptake by dry beans observed by micro-magnetic resonance imaging. Annal Bot 2006; 98: 545-553.
[15]
Koizumi, M., Naito, S., Haishi, T., Utsuzawa, S., Ishida, N. and Kano, H. Thawing of frozen vegetables observed by a small dedicated MRI for food research. Magn Reson Imaging 2006; 24: 1111-1119.
[16]
Koizumi, M., Kikuchi, K., Isobe, S., Ishida, N., Naito, S. and Kano, H. Role of seed coat in imbibing soybean seeds observed by micro-magnetic resonance imaging. Annal Bot 2008; 102: 343-352.
[17]
Krishnan, P., Joshi, D.K., Nagarajan, S. and Moharir, A.V. Characterization of germinating and non-viable soybean seeds by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Seed Sci Res 2004; 14: 355-362.
[18]
Larson, L.A. The effect soaking pea seeds with or without seedcoats has on seedling growth. Plant Physiol 1968; 43: 255-259.
[19]
Ma, F., Cholewa, E., Mohamed, T., Peterson, C.A. and Gijzen, M. Cracks in the palisade cuticle of soybean seed coats correlate with their permeability to water. Annal Bot 2004; 94: 213-228.
[20]
Manning, J.C. and Van Staden, J. The role of the lens in seed imbibition and seedling vigour of Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). Annal Bot 1987; 59: 705-713.
[21]
Matsui, M., Uenaka, T., Toyosawa, I. and Fukuda, M. Role of soybean aleurone layer in water uptake in seeds. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 1996; 70: 663-669 (in Japanese with English abstract).
[22]
McDonald, M.B.Jr., Vertucci, C.W. and Roos, E.E. Seed coat regulation of soybean seed imbibition. Crop Sci 1988; 28: 987-992.
[23]
McEntyre, E., Ruan, R. and Fulcher, R.G. Comparison of water absorption patterns in two barley cultivars, using magnetic resonance imaging. Cereal Chem 1998; 75: 792-795.
[24]
Meyer, C.J., Steudle, E. and Peterson, C.A. Patterns and kinetics of water uptake by soybean seeds. J Exptl Bot 2007; 58: 717-732.
[25]
Molina-Cano, J.-L., Sopena, A., Polo, J.P., Bergareche, C., Moralejo, M.A., Swanston, J.S. and Glidewell, S.M. Relationships between barley hordeins and malting quality in a mutant of cv. Triumph. II. Genetic and environmental effects on water uptake. J Cereal Sci 2002; 36: 39-50.
[26]
Parrish, D.J. and Leopold, A.C. Transient changes during soybean imbibition. Plant Physiol 1977; 59: 1111-1115.
[27]
Pietrzak, L.N., Frégeau-Reid, J., Chatson, B. and Blackwell, B. Observations on water distribution in soybean seed during hydration processes using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Can J Plant Sci 2002; 82: 513-519.
[28]
Powell, A.A. and Matthews, S. The influence of testa condition on the imbibition and vigour of pea seeds. J Exptl Bot 1979; 30: 193-197.
[29]
Ruan, R. and Litchfield, J.B. Determination of water distribution and mobility inside maize kernels during steeping using magnetic resonance imaging. Cereal Chem 1992; 69: 13-17.
[30]
Ruan, R., Litchfield, J.B. and Eckhoff, S.R. Simultaneous and nondestructive measurement of transient moisture profiles and structural changes in corn kernels during steeping using microscopic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Cereal Chem 1992; 69: 600-606.
[31]
Terskikh, V.V., Feurtado J.A., Ren, C., Abrams, S.R. and Kermode, A.R. Water uptake and oil distribution during imbibition of seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) monitored in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Planta 2005; 221: 17-27.
[32]
Terskikh, V., Müller, K., Kermode, A.R. and Leubner-Metzger, G. In vivo 1H-NMR microimaging during seed imbibition, germination, and early growth, pp.319-327 in Kermode, A.R. (Ed.) Seed dormancy: Methods and protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology. Springer Science+Business Media. 2011.
[33]
Thorne, J.H. Morphology and ultrastructure of maternal seed tissues of soybean in relation to the import of photosynthate. Plant Physiol 1981; 67: 1016-1025.
[34]
Tian, X-H., Nakamura, T. and Kokubun, M. The role of seed structure and oxygen responsiveness in pre-germination flooding tolerance of soybean cultivars. Plant Prod Sci 2005; 8: 157-165.
[35]
Wojtyla, L., Garnczarska, M., Zalewski, T., Bednarski, W., Ratajczak, L. and Jurga, S. A comparative study of water distribution, free radical production and activation of antioxidative metabolism in germinating pea seeds. J Plant Physiol 2006; 163: 1207-1220.
[36]
Yaklich, R.W., Vigil, E.L., Erbe, E.F. and Wergin, W.P. The fine structure of aleurone cells in the soybean seed coat. Protoplasma 1992; 167: 108-119.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved